Annotated bibliography


Question:

For the research essay, you must complete an “Annotated Bibliography.” A bibliography consists of the sources that have informed your research. Sometimes these sources will be used directly in your essay, sometimes not. However, this doesn’t mean that everything that you have researched should go into the bibliography. Only those sources that directly inform your research should. You should have at least 8 sources in your bibliography.

The first part of the bibliography will be your introduction. The introduction will serve as your research project statement. This statement should introduce the topic you are researching, the issue you are focusing on within this topic, a brief summary of the issue, what interests you about it, a thesis question, and a working thesis statement. Please address all of these aspects in the order presented.

The second part of the bibliography will be the sources you have choses and their annotations.

The assignment will address:

1.) Your ability to distinguish strong sources from weak
2.) Your ability narrow down a topic so that you can distinguish between sources that inform your argument and those that don’t
3.) Your ability to remain objective when dealing with sources
4.) Your ability to summarize sources briefly in a 1 paragraph annotation

Some specifics

Length A 250-300 word introduction with at least 2-3 pages of annotations, Double Spaced, Times New Roman Font 12

Presentation A header and page numbers are required

Your name, course number, and date should be in the top left hand corner on the first page of the essay. Your last name and page number should appear in the right hand corner of the header.

Sources: The break-down of sources that must be used is as followed: 2 actual books, 2 sources from academic peer reviewed journals (either from a database or in print), 2 viable web sources (meaning they should be from trusted sites), and 2 other sources (books, journal articles, websites, graphs, photo, pie charts, interviews, documentaries etc.).

Style Format MLA


Answer:

Name of Student

Name of the Professor

English 101 Paper

21 July 2028.

Effects of Institutional Racism on Victims’ Health

Introduction

The aim of this paper is to discuss the effects of institutional racism on health of the affected individuals. The problem is displayed in political and social institutions where individuals experience disparities in delivery of services for instance in employment, education and healthcare. Racism affects the living conditions of minority groups as they are exposed to inferior quality of healthcare. For instance, they are restricted to certain healthcare facilities, thereby limiting their access to quality healthcare. Moreover, the individuals may experience stress which may affect their jobs in terms of performance. In the employment sector, racism affects the work environment, whereby hostility brings about work-related stress. Stress leads to an increase in cases of suicide for individuals who are not able to handle the pressure that comes along with institutional racism. Feeling out of place in an institution is one of the contributors of increased stress levels that can lead to suicide attempts. Similarly, the rate of crimes such as murder may rise as victims try to stand up against institutionalized racial injustice.

Nevertheless, the effects of institutional racism on health may also be influenced by other factors, for instance, level of education and social economic status. These factors affect the way an individual deals with racism and should be included in dealing with its effects in society today. In this paper, the effects of racism on healthcare are discussed through a qualitative analysis of peer reviewed sources, books, and journals. The next section contains an annotated bibliography of these sources.

Williams, David. “Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health: The Added Effects of Racism and Discrimination.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896.1 (1999): 173-188. Web.

The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the effects of institutional racism on victims’ health outcomes. It explains that institutional racism restricts the development of a group as it limits the access of social economic opportunities thereby affecting the level of healthcare access.

Harrell, Shelly. “A Multidimensional Conceptualization of RacismRelated Stress: Implications for the WellBeing of People of Color.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70.1 (2000): 42-57. Web.

The aim of this paper is to explain that institutional racism can lead to stress as well as trauma among individuals who experience it. The author argues that traumatic experiences relating to discrimination may affect the mental wellbeing of the individual. According to this study, even leaders who have overcome racial prejudice to achieve success also experience institutional racism, and this may affect their job performance.

Gee, Gilbert C. “A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between Institutional and Individual Racial Discrimination and Health Status.” American Journal of Public Health, 92.4 (2002): 615-623. Web.

The paper explains that racism affects the health of the affected individuals who are discriminated as they experience stress which may affect other aspects of their lives as well. The paper is a valid source as it uses statistical data to get to this conclusion.

Greenhaus, Jeffrey., Parasuraman, Saroj and Wormley, Wayne. “Effects of Race on Organizational Experiences, Job Performance Evaluations, and Career Outcomes.” Academy of Management Journal, 33.1 (1990): 64-86. Print.

The aim of this paper is to elaborate the effects of institutional racism on the employed individuals especially the managers who are of color. These managers are not accepted in their organizations therefore, they may acquire stress due to the working conditions which not only affect health but also job performance.

David, Williams and Williams-Morris, Ruth. “Racism and Mental Health: The African American Experience.” Ethnicity and health 5.3-4 (2000): 243-268. Print.

In this paper, institutional racism is analyzed in relation to its effect on the mental health of the individuals who experience it. The paper uses an empirical approach to analyze the effects on African Americans, and is therefore a useful source for the study.

Ahmed, Ameena., Mohammed, Selina and Williams, David. “Racial Discrimination and Health: Pathways and Evidence.” Indian Journal of Medical Research, 126.4 (2007): 318. Print.

In this paper, the effect of institutional racism is analyzed in relation to limited access to good medical care services as a result of restricted living regions for marginalized groups. The situation affects diverse health aspects, including nutrition. The paper is a valid source as it uses statistical evidence to arrive at the conclusion that discrimination in access of resources leads to deterioration of health status.

Cottle, Simon. The Racist Murder of Stephen Lawrence: Media Performance and Public Transformation. Amsterdam: Praeger, 2004. Print.

The aim of this book is to explain the adverse effects of racism on individuals who set out to fight against it. It is a valid source as it gives an actual example of a black student who was killed as a result of standing up against racial prejudice

Better, Shirley. Institutional Racism: A Primer on Theory and Strategies for Social Change. London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. Print.

The aim of this book is to analyze racism from the point of view of social change. The book also offers possible methods and solutions that may be used to address the problem. The methods include advice on standards the institutions set where they encourage equality which will influence performance, and promotion of workers’ wellbeing. The book is a valid source as it encourages the use of different approaches to solve the present condition. It also elaborates that other factors influencing the health condition of the individuals who experience instances of discrimination based on their skin color or ethnic background.

Conclusion

In conclusion, institutional racism has adverse effects not only on victims’ health. Moreover, it jeopardizes the economic wellbeing of a country because inhibiting productivity in the workplace. It is vital for regulation in employment to be promoted in order to encourage equality. Moreover, the health status of racism victims should be emphasized as part of the fight against the vice. The pursuit of equality in access to healthcare should be an ongoing undertaking as part of efforts aimed at ensuring that there is no single member of society whose right to healthcare has been denied due to his skin color or other considerations for that matter.

 

Works cited

Ahmed, Ameena., Mohammed, Selina and Williams, David. “Racial Discrimination and Health: Pathways and Evidence.” Indian Journal of Medical Research, 126.4 (2007): 318. Print.

Better, Shirley. Institutional Racism: A Primer on Theory and Strategies for Social Change. London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. Print.

Cottle, Simon. The Racist Murder of Stephen Lawrence: Media Performance and Public Transformation. Amsterdam: Praeger, 2004. Print.

David, Williams, and Williams-Morris, Ruth. “Racism and mental health: the African American experience.” Ethnicity and health 5.3-4 (2000): 243-268. Print.

Gee, Gilbert C. “A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between Institutional and Individual Racial Discrimination and Health Status.” American Journal of Public Health, 92.4 (2002): 615-623. Web.

Greenhaus, Jeffrey., Parasuraman, Saroj and Wormley, Wayne. “Effects of Race on Organizational Experiences, Job Performance Evaluations, and Career Outcomes.” Academy of Management Journal, 33.1 (1990): 64-86. Print.

Harrell, Shelly. “A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Racism‐Related Stress: Implications for the Well‐Being of People of Color.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70.1 (2000): 42-57. Web.

Williams, David. “Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health: The Added Effects of Racism and Discrimination.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896.1 (1999): 173-188. Web.


 

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