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Please answer below questions:

1) Which stages is the most important of emotional confidence and why?

Need recognition, Search for information, Pre purchase evaluation of alternative, Purchase, Consumption, Post consumption evaluation, Divestment. Which factors apply in the consumer decision making process?

2) What are the effects of emotional confidence?

3) How are you going to measure emotional confidence?

4) If you have chance to change emotional confidence topic what would you study? Advertising, Retail, or luxury brand?


Title: Emotional Confidence


Introduction. 2

Which Stages Is the Most Important of Emotional Confidence and Why?. 2

What Are the Effects of Emotional Confidence?. 3

How Are You Going to Measure Emotional Confidence?. 3

If You Have a Chance to Change Emotional Confidence, Which Topic Would You Study?. 4

Conclusion. 5

References. 6


Emotional confidence plays a critical role in the consumer decision making process. One way to highlight these effects is to focus on the different models of consumer decision making that have been developed in marketing literature. This paper focuses on Engel, Blackwell & Miniard’s (2001) consumer decision-making model. It evaluates the stages outlined in the model with a view to highlight the one that is most important for emotional confidence. The paper also analyzes the different factors that apply in the decision making process among consumers. Additionally, two more related issues are addressed in this paper: the effects of emotional confidence, and ways of measuring it. Lastly, this research paper presents a case for the choice of topic that would be investigated as an alternative to emotional confidence.

Which Stages Is the Most Important of Emotional Confidence and Why?

The most important stage in the consumer decision making process is the search for information. It is important because it exerts influence on all the other stages of the decision-making process while at the same time providing the greatest boost to emotional confidence. It commences after a consumer has already recognized a need. For instances, it influences need recognition because the information that the customer obtains may influence his decision to rethink his decision regarding some of the needs he may have considered important. In other words, need recognition is normally influenced by numerous factors, including the availability of various solutions in the market. For example, one may recognize a need before embarking on the search for information only to realize that no product exists in the market that can address that problem. In such a situation, the consumer would be compelled to postpone the purchase decision until such a time he feels that an innovative entrepreneur somewhere has identified and exploited the market gap by coming up with products that address his need.


The search for information also influences the level of emotional confidence that a consumer develops during pre-purchase evaluation of alternatives by equipping him with the knowledge that he needs to use to measure the ability by various products to meet his needs. In fact, the number of alternatives that are evaluated depend exclusively on the amount of information that the consumer has searched. Consumers who spend too little time looking for information about various products are likely to be less emotionally confident when making the final purchase decision. They may feel that there are better alternatives “out there” that they still need to discover. Similarly, the purchase and consumption stages tend to be outcomes of the efforts made by the consumer during the search for information. Even after identifying the best product to purchase, many consumers still tend to harbor immense interest in the various alternatives that they encountered during the information search. In fact, this information acts as one of the criteria that forms the basis for post-consumption evaluation and divestment.

During post-consumption evaluation, consumers make an assessment of how the product enabled them to meet the need recognized at the beginning of the decision making process vis-à-vis the promise that was made by the producer. The outcomes of this assessment provides numerous insights into the relationship between the information that producers give to consumers and the reality on the “ground”. One may expect a disparity to exist between product description and actual level of effectiveness to exist, and the best way to understand this disparity is to compare the information provided by producers and actual experiences regarding the utility of the product (Watson & Spence, 2007). Thus, there is an intricate relationship between the search for information and emotional confidence during the entire consumer decision making process.

The main factors that apply in the consumer decision making process include culture, family considerations, social class, situation, and personal influence. The process is also heavily influenced by the consumer is engaging in a high-involvement or a low-involvement purchase. The level of complexity tends to be highest during high-involvement decisions and lowest during low-involvement decisions. This is because the former category of decisions involves extended problem-solving while the latter category involves habitual problem-solving. In this regard, one may also observe a cross-cutting phenomenon, whereby the level of emotional confidence is normally at its highest during low-involvement situations and lowest during high-involvement situations.

What Are the Effects of Emotional Confidence?

Emotional confidence enables consumers to make the right purchase decisions (Kidwell., Hardesty & Childers, 2008). For a consumer to purchase a product that will facilitate the optimal satisfaction of his need, the quality of the decisions that he makes matter a lot. Lack of emotional confidence easily triggers anxiety, thereby interfering with the individual’s cognitive process (Howard & Gengler, 2001). Lack of cognitive focus makes it difficult for a consumer to assess each variable objectively before making the final purchase decision.

Essentially, the manner in which consumers behave and think is heavily influenced by their level of emotional confidence (Burns & Neisner, 2006). They tend to be confident about the certainty of estimates regarding the utility of products based on the way they perceive their experiences and knowledge. They also tend to develop the perception that they are capable of acquiring and using information as well as protecting themselves from the harm that arises from misleading information.


An alternative way of explaining the effects of emotional confidence is to examine the process through which consumers exhibit the capacity to reconcile the emotions that arise from their purchase behavior. These emotions may arise even after the consumer’s best efforts to use cognitive knowledge, and this is primarily because of the element of uncertainty about future behavioral performance. These feelings of uncertainty tend to create the perception that cognitive knowledge is not as relevant to the decision making process as the consumer may have initially thought. To overcome this uncertainty and to reconcile the emotions that are triggered by their behavior, the consumers must learn to overcome negative feelings about their cognitive abilities. In other words, they must learn to feel good about their cognitive knowledge-inspired behavior despite the element of uncertainty that accompanies it. Some of the feelings that are easily overcome through emotional confidence include doubt, pride, frustration, and distrust. As a corollary, people with a low level of emotional confidence tend to struggle with feelings of extreme doubt, distrust, and frustration whenever they think about the potential negative consequences of their purchase behavior.

How Are You Going to Measure Emotional Confidence?

The issue of measuring emotions remains unresolved in marketing literature (Bearden, Hardesty & Rose, 2001). Given that the field of emotional confidence is in its formative stages, it is hardly surprising that no study has been conducted on how to measure it. It is for this reason that the closest a researcher can get to an idea about this phenomenon is by examining discourse on the measurement of emotions. This is precisely what this paper is going to do.

One suggested measure of emotions is the pleasure-arousal-dominance (PAD) scale (Richins, 1997). This measure assesses emotional responses to various categories of marketing stimuli. Unlike other measures, the PAD scale measures specific emotional responses rather than the entire emotional-experience domain (Foxall & Yani-de-Soriano, 2005). In other words, it assesses the arousal, pleasure, and dominance that is perceived to have been elicited by specific environmental stimuli. The scale is most appropriate in situations where the researcher only wants to measure the different dimensions that underlie the participants’ specific emotional states.

Another suggested measure is the differential emotions scale (DES) (Burns & Neisner, 2006). This scale entails the use of facial expressions to identify emotions such as interest, enjoyment, disgust, guilt, fear, and distress. This approach is common in research on consumption emotion (Machleit & Mantel, 2001). A major disadvantage of this approach is that it focuses too much on negative emotions. The validity of this measure has also been questioned based on the claim that the explanation for the differences between the basic emotions measured through DES and other emotions is unsatisfactory (Jang & Namkung, 2009). In light of these limitations, the former approach (pleasure-arousal-dominant scale) will be preferred over the differential emotions scale in measuring emotional confidence.

If You Have a Chance to Change Emotional Confidence, Which Topic Would You Study?

In case I had an opportunity to change the topic, I would study luxury brands. There are many issues relating to the marketing of luxury brands that I feel need to be investigated. For example, the process through which international luxury brands are emerging today needs to be examined. It may be important to examine how differently luxury brands developed in the traditional settings compared to the way they do in the contemporary era of information technology. On the same breathe, I would find out whether any radical changes have occurred in recent times in the consumption of luxury products in different parts of the world. Based on these findings, I would forecast on the changes that are likely to occur in the foreseeable in regards to luxury-brand building and positioning. In this forecast, I would be keen to narrow down to an appraisal of the negative effects of counterfeiting on luxury brands. In this case, I would synthesize recent research on the attitudes that consumers develop towards counterfeit luxury products as well as the main determinants of those attitudes.

Moreover, I am immensely interested in analyzing the phenomenon whereby luxury brands continue to maintain their appeal despite their high pricing levels. This would involve examining various variables that influence this phenomenon as well as their interrelatedness. In relation to such an investigation, it would be important to assess developments in the rarity principle and their influence in terms of maintaining the concept of luxury brand. In the final analysis I would be keen to determine whether the task of building a luxury brand is more arduous than that of building ordinary, averagely-priced brands.


The paper concludes that the stage of consumer decision making process that is the most important for emotional confidence is the search for information. The analysis also finds that the main factors to be applied in the consumer decision making process include culture, family considerations, social class, situation, and personal influence. On the other hand, the main effects of emotional confidence based on this study include enabling consumers to make the right purchase decisions, reduction in anxiety levels among consumers, increase in the level of confidence among consumers’ knowledge and experiences, and uncertainty avoidance. In regards to measuring emotional confidence, the ideal approach to use is the pleasure-arousal-dominant scale. Lastly, my choice of a topic that would be investigated as an alternative to emotional confidence would be luxury brands.


Bearden, W., Hardesty, D. & Rose, R. (2001). Consumer Self‐Confidence: Refinements in Conceptualization and Measurement. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(1), 121-134.

Burns, D. & Neisner, L. (2006). Customer satisfaction in a retail setting: The contribution of emotion. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 34(1), 49 – 66.

Engel, J., Blackwell, R. & Miniard, P. (2001). Consumer Behavior. New York, NY: Harcourt Inc.

Foxall, G. & Yani-de-Soriano, M. (2005). Situational influences on consumers’ attitudes and behavior. Journal of Business Research, 58(4), 518–525.

Howard, D. & Gengler, C. (2001). Emotional Contagion Effects on Product Attitudes. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(2), 189-201.

Jang, S. & Namkung, Y. (2009). Perceived quality, emotions, and behavioral intentions: Application of an extended Mehrabian–Russell model to restaurants. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 451–460.

Kidwell, B., Hardesty, D. & Childers, T. (2008). Emotional Calibration Effects on Consumer Choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 1-11.

Machleit, K. & Mantel, S. (2001). Emotional response and shopping satisfaction: Moderating effects of shopper attributions. Journal of Business Research, 54(2), 97–106.

Richins, M. (1997). Measuring Emotions in the Consumption Experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(2), 127-146.

Watson, L. & Spence, M. (2007). Causes and consequences of emotions on consumer behavior: A review and integrative cognitive appraisal theory. European Journal of Marketing, 41(5), 487 – 511.

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