Education Essay

Order Description

10 pages on educational leadership, there should be a hypothesis, methodology, conclusion, evaluation. 15 annotated references.

Answer

Jones-White, D., Radcliffe, P., Huesman, R. & Kellogg, J. (2010). Redefining Student Success: Applying Different Multinomial Regression Techniques for the Study of Student Graduation across Institutions of Higher Education. Research in Higher Education 51(2), 154-174.

Hypothesis

The hypothesis of this paper is that although multinomial logit is the best approach to the modeling in the context of limited independent variables, it imposes strict assumptions that may be inappropriate.

Methodology

The data used in the study was obtained from the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC). The data sample was targeted at the Twin Cities campus of the University of Minnesota, whereby three cohorts of new freshmen were examined. Using this data, different multinomial regression techniques were assessed with a view to determine their utility in modeling student success in multi-institutional contexts.

Three scenarios of degree attainment within six years were examined for purposes of comparison with the college drop-out phenomenon. The first scenario involved the attainment of a baccalaureate degree provided by the home institution. The second scenario involved the attainment of a baccalaureate from a different institution. The third scenario involved the award of an associate degree from a different institution.

 

Conclusion

The paper found out that multinomial logit is indeed the best method that researchers can use to model multi-category student enrollment and academic attainment phenomenon. However, the strict assumptions that the method imposes were found to be useful in some instances and inappropriate in others. In terms of benefits, the unordered variables were viewed to offer institutions a unique opportunity to draw a distinction between competitive disadvantages and more universal barriers to student success. The paper concluded that the main variables determining success among students in the context of higher education include the level of academic qualification, the choice between home and “far-away” higher education institution, and whether a student is able to graduate within a six-year span. This means that the ability to select the right strategy greatly determines whether students will succeed in accomplishing their goals.

Evaluation

This paper has adopted an objective approach in the assessment of factors influencing student success in higher education. Notably, the path to success is challenging for many students; it stands in sharp contrast with the image of direct route to graduation that institutions have traditionally sought to promote by presenting graduation figures. The authors of this article provide a vivid picture of the complexities of the academic journey for a typical freshman in a higher-education context. They also provide insights into the importance of devising effective and efficient methods of improving student success.

 

Tellez, K. (2011). A case study of a career in education that began with “Teach for America”. Teaching Education, 22(1), 15-38.

Hypothesis

The thesis of this paper is that although university teacher educators’ fight against legislators’ move to create alternative routes to teaching licensure is justified, these teachers may not prevail in this battle because of the impossibly-high burden of proving that such routes lead to less effective teachers.

Methodology  

This study is based on seven-year case study of Steven (a pseudonym), a teacher who followed an alternative route to professional licensure known as Teach for America (TFA) program. Tellez (2011) conducted lengthy interviews to explore the experiences and memories that led Steven, who embarked on his career without any pre-service teacher education, to become a teacher. The interviews were based on Wengraf’s (2001) concept of biographic interviewing. Based on this concept, the most productive interview questions are those that induce narratives. It requires the interviewer to pose a question intended to induce a narrative, followed closely by orientation information. A link to different events of the past is provided until the interviewee comes back to the present context to complete his narrative.

Conclusion

Beginning teachers who begin teaching before coursework are more engaged than their counterparts who go through the pre-service program. However, this does not mean that pre-service training is unnecessary; it means that professional development should be pursued with the right level of timing and intensity. Steven’s case shows that in some cases, teachers who lack professional preparation outperform veteran teachers. Therefore, the hypothesis presented in this paper is found to be correct; there are grounds for opposing alternative routes to licensure but it is difficult to prove that such routes lead to less effective teachers.

Evaluation

The paper makes an important contribution to the debate on pre-service teacher training and alternative routes to professional licensure. It also sheds light on the importance of the interview-based case-study in research on the effective of these two approaches to professional licensure.

Adelman, C. (1999). Answers in the tool box: Academic intensity, attendance patterns, and bachelor’s degree attainment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Hypothesis

The hypothesis of the study is that institutional graduation rates should not be used to measure accountability, hence colleges should not be blamed for failure by students to complete degrees on time or their failure to complete them altogether.

Methodology

The research was conducted using a national cohort of college and high school students. Test scores, transcript records, and surveys were used to study the attendance patterns, academic intensity, and bachelor’s degree attainment of students from 1980 when they joined the 10th grade to 1993 when they were roughly aged 30.

 

Conclusion

This paper’s main finding is that institutional graduation rates should not be used as a measure of accountability in colleges. This is because at 60 percent of the student population, the proportion of students attending more than one higher learning institution is very high. The fact that 40 percent of these students do not complete their bachelors’ degrees exonerates colleges from blame. It is wrong to blame colleges that report low graduation rates simply because of the behavior of students who pass through the system.

Evaluation

This paper provides a candid investigation of the problem of graduation rates. It sets the pace for other studies seeking to investigate the problem of the tendency by students to fail to attain their bachelors’ degrees. It triggers a heated debate based on the claim that even if institutions were to retain students, students will always bear the responsibility of completing degrees regardless of the number of the higher learning institutions they attend. The inference to derive from this contention is that policymakers should follow the student rather than the institution.

Herzog, S. (2005). Measuring determinants of student return vs. dropout/stopout vs transfer: A first-to-second year analysis of new freshmen. Research in Higher Education, 46(8), 883–928.

Hypothesis

The hypothesis of this paper is that the propensity for students to be at risk as far as the problem of retention is concerned arises from insufficient academic preparation for college education.

Methodology

The study adopted multinomial logistic regression to study multi-year cohorts. The data file was generated using four data sources: the student information system (SIS), the payroll system for students of a public university who have gone through on-campus employment, the National Student Clearinghouse, which facilitated the identification of transfer-out students, and the university’s student profile section, which provided access to parent income data.

Conclusion

Herzog (2005) concludes that the highest risk of departure is in the first year. Based on this finding, he suggests that efforts should be made to understand all the factors that are likely to elevate this risk at different points during this period. The paper concludes that the retention challenge should be addressed from the perspective of both institutional cooperation and theory development. In both cases, emphasis should be on three areas: an emerging trend where students attend multiple higher learning institutions, the growing problem of retaining students who are unprepared to embark on college-level work, and the effects of financial aid.

Evaluation

The paper provides an empirical analysis of some of the core issues that remain at the heart of the student retention debate today. These issues include academic preparation for college education, financial aid, and the emerging trend where students are being allowed to attend multiple colleges. The findings of this paper can be useful in terms of both theory development and practical application in policies aimed at reducing drop-out, stop-out, and transfer risk.

 

Ishitani, T. (2003). A longitudinal approach to assessing attrition behavior among first-generation students: Time-varying effects of pre-college characteristics. Research in Higher Education, 44(4), 433–449.

Hypothesis

This paper is based on the hypothesis that “first-generation” students (those whose parents did not attain a college degree) face a higher risk of attrition than those whose parents graduated from college.

Methodology

The paper adopts a qualitative approach to investigate the causative relationship between first-generation students and attrition from college using a longitudinal perspective.

Conclusion

The results of the study suggest that over time, first-generation students are more likely to drop out of college than their counterparts.

Evaluation

The paper brings into perspective the importance of putting into consideration the level of education of parents when devising policies, strategies, and interventions aimed at addressing the problem of college attrition.

 

Ishitani, T., & Snider, K. (2006). Longitudinal effects of college preparation programs on college retention. A Paper Presented at the 44th Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research May 31, 2004 Boston, Massachusetts.

Hypothesis

The hypothesis on which this paper is founded is that high attrition rates in college raise serious concerns about the effectiveness of college preparation programs being implemented today, thereby creating the impression that most time should be spent on promoting continuing interactions within institutional environments.

Methodology

The data used in this study was collected from the National Education Longitudinal Study as well as the Postsecondary Education Transcript Study, both of which were undertaken between 1988 and 2002. The sample comprised of 4,445 freshmen students. Survival analysis techniques were used to determine how high school programs longitudinally affect college retention.

Conclusion

Ishitani & Snider (2006) concluded that college preparation programs being implemented today, primarily ACT (American College Testing) and SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test), are effective in reducing the likelihood of student departure by 42 percent and 55 percent during the second and third college year respectively. In contrast, chances of departure increased by 89 percent during the second year whenever students received assistance in the form of financial aid.

Evaluation

The paper provides valuable information regarding the importance of different student preparation and assistance programs. Ishitani & Snider (2006) shed light on the possibility that some of these programs may indeed be acting as contributors to the growth of the problem of student attrition instead of contributing to problem-solving in regards to this serious challenge that confronts the higher education system today.

Porter, S. (2003). Understanding Retention Outcomes: Using multiple data sources to distinguish between dropouts, stopouts, and transfer-outs. Journal of College Student Retention, 5(1), 53–70.

Hypothesis

First year retention outcomes are complex and should not be viewed in terms of stay-versus-go outcomes; rather they should be viewed in the context of many choices whereby a student may decide to transfer, to take some time away from studies, or to discontinue the education program altogether.

Methodology

A qualitative methodology is adopted, whereby empirical problems outlined in retention studies are examined. The sources of data reviewed for this purpose include the Enrollment Search Program of the National Student Clearinghouse, transcript requests, exit surveys, state transfer databases, and withdrawn student surveys.

 

Conclusion

Porter (2003) concludes that the complexity of student retention outcomes call for the development of an integrated theory that provides a platform for the analysis of empirical evidence in light of practical implications for first-year college students.

Evaluation

Unlike many studies on retention outcomes, Porter’s (2003) study adopts a straightforward, simplistic approach to the review of empirical evidence, derivation of conclusions, and assessment of implications for theory and practice.

Radcliffe, P., Huesman, R. & Kellogg, J. (2006). Modeling the incidence and timing of student attrition: A survival analysis approach to retention analysis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Institutional Research in the Upper Midwest (AIRUM).

Hypothesis

The incidence and timing of attrition by first-year students is influenced by a myriad of factors, meaning that there are many possible avenues for academic improvements.

Methodology

A longitudinal study employing the survival analysis approach was conducted at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, with the data sample consisting of 9,890 students. The students entered a full-time degree program during the 1999-2000 semesters. A probability model employing logit was also used to observe whether each of the students had achieved the objective of graduating by the end of the sixth year. Total credits completed were used as the variable for accounting for the duration of time taken in the fulfillment of the requirements of the academic program.

Conclusion

The main conclusion in this paper is that the different avenues of improvement need to be put into consideration to address the problem of first-year student attrition. Two factors stand out as predictors of attrition in the cohorts under study: academic preparation and academic performance.

Evaluation

A wide range of issues relating to student attrition and predictors of this phenomenon have emerged from this study. A case in point is the role of performance in mathematics as a predictor of overall level of academic success throughout the six-year duration. The issue of attrition among student athletes, particularly those engaging in non-revenue generating sporting activities, also stands out in this study. On a negative note, the study failed to establish expected link in terms of different attrition rates for native and non-native students, with the latter denoting Black, Asian, and Hispanic students.

 

Radcliffe, P., Huesman, R. & Kellogg, J. (2009). Identifying students at risk: Utilizing survival analysis to study student athlete attrition. IR Applications, 21. Retrieved from www.oir.umn.edu/static/papers/CSRDE_2006/CSRDE_Identifying_Students_at_Risk_paper.pdf  on August 1, 2014.

Hypothesis

Student athletes are at a higher risk of attrition than non-athlete students, hence the need to adopt targeted preparation and collegiate academic assessment programs targeted at this category of students.

Methodology

The paper used a longitudinal model employing survival analysis in the identification of factors influencing the ability by student athletes to master sufficient persistence to graduate.

Conclusion

Different routes for improvement are available for student athletes facing an immediate risk of attrition. The most critical predictors of both the timing of departure and actual possibility of departure are academic preparation and performance on the academic front during the first term in college.

Evaluation

The study has far-reaching implications for future studies on the problem of attrition among athlete students. Some critical issues that need further investigation include the role of vigilance and support, the need for tuition reciprocity, and variations in attrition rates for students of color. Finally, the study may have been of greater significance if more recent cohorts were used.

Téllez, K. (2008). What student teachers learn about multicultural education from their cooperating teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 43–58.490–519.

Hypothesis

The larger social implications of the materials and strategies that student teachers adopt in multicultural contexts are being neglected because of these teachers’ preoccupation with the success of their strategies.

Methodology

            The researcher asked five cooperating teachers with experience in teaching multicultural curricular to provide a description of their approaches in efforts to encourage students to engage in the strategies and materials they sought to promote.

Conclusion

It was found out that the highest level of success among student teachers arose out of an in-depth understanding of the difference between expectations of high-quality work and identification/sympathy with the plight of the children, who happened to be of low-income Latino background.

Evaluation

This paper raises the important issue of identification with the plight of students from low-income backgrounds and the impact this may have on student teachers’ pursuit of better outcomes for their chosen teaching materials and strategies. The paper did not explain the relationship between these variables, hence the need to focus on these areas in future research.

Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89–125.

Hypothesis

The definition of the term “drop-out” is vague and needs to be clarified by putting into consideration the different contexts in which it is being used in higher-education environments.

Methodology

The paper adopts a qualitative analysis of literature on higher-education dropouts. Literature is reviewed and aspects of theoretical analysis examined. Recent data on trends in drop-out trends is also reviewed with specific focus being on changes in the impact of social status and student abilities.

Conclusion

            There is a need for the existing definition of the term “drop-out” to be modified to provide clarity. In providing this clarification, attention should be on the different meanings attributed to this term.

Evaluation

The interaction between the individual and the higher-learning institution should be clarified with a view to determine how it can act as a predictor of student drop-out rates in different academic contexts. The paper also sheds light on the distinction between voluntary and involuntary transfer and drop-out in the context of higher education.

Tinto, V. (1998). Colleges as Communities: Taking research on student persistence seriously. Review of Higher Education, 21, 167–177.

Hypothesis

This paper is based on the thesis that the best way through which colleges and universities can excel in their work is through reorganization with a view to promote greater educational community in which cooperation among students, staff, and faculty is encouraged

Methodology

The paper is based on a qualitative review of literature on the view of colleges as communities and the role of cooperation in all academic pursuits by students, staff, and faculty.

Conclusion

            Tinto (1998) concludes that although the view of colleges and universities as communities is widely recognized, not everyone is taking it seriously. This means that more should be done to maximize the utility of these communities, ostensibly through greater cooperation among all stakeholders.

Evaluation

            The paper provides crucial information regards trends, research gaps, subjectivities, and assumptions that dominate literature on colleges as communities. It provides essential background information for theory-building as well as assessment of policy issues in regards to the overarching goal of reorganization of educational functions with a view to promote greater educational community.

Levin, B. & Clowes, D. (1982). The effect of residence hall living at college on attainment of the baccalaureate degree. Journal of College Student Personnel, 23, 99–104.

Hypothesis

The thesis of this paper is that there is a close relationship between higher graduation rate and far-reaching demographic differences

Methodology

The paper was based on a longitudinal study in which some 686 college students were surveyed with a view to examine the relationship between educational progress and living environment.

Conclusion

Levin & Clowes (1982) confirmed the existence of a close relationship between higher graduation rate and far-reaching demographic differences.

Evaluation

Other aspects of the learning environment such as life in residence halls should be examined to determine whether some variations occur in terms of the effects of living environment on educational progress. The study should also have provided an in-depth analysis of transfer influences in terms of the possibility of a similar impact.

 

Tinto, V. (2006). Research and practice of student retention: What next? Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 8(1), 1-19.

Hypothesis

Tinto (2006) hypothesizes that the academic community is yet to attend to the wide-reaching educational issues that have the ultimate power to shape student success within the context of higher education; therefore, all efforts of this community will continue to fall short of expectations in terms of the desired outcomes unless and until these issues are addressed.

Methodology

This paper takes the form of a speech that Tinto (2006) delivered at the National Conference on Student Recruitment, Marketing, and Retention, held in Washington, D.C. on July 27-30, 2005.

Conclusion

Tinto (2006) confirms that although researchers have come a long way since work on student retention began, the journey has only begun. Much has been learnt about sophisticated techniques of promoting persistence for students in different settings. However, data reveals that the aspects of this work that are extremely difficult are yet to be tackled. These aspects have a lot to with the restructuring of the actual educational task.

Evaluation

The paper places the debate on student in its proper context. It addresses the things that have been done and those that continue to be ignored by researchers. The uniqueness of the speech methodology renders the paper effective in addressing the challenges and prospects of the student retention discourse.

Willett, J. & Singer, J. (1991). From Whether to When: New Methods for Studying Student Dropout and Teacher Attrition. Review of Educational Research, 61(4), 407-450.

Hypothesis

The authors of this paper hypothesize that asking when transitions of teacher attrition and student dropout will occur is a more powerful way of framing questions relating to specific events and their occurrence within a particular point in time.

Methodology

The paper is based on a review of literature on student dropout and attrition among teachers. The paper also adopts the survival analysis approach to provide an in-depth analysis of the study of educational events in terms of their timing. On this basis, the study develops survival methods that can facilitate a better description of timing of a wide range of educational transitions.

Conclusion

Willett & Singer (1991) conclude that questions relating to teacher attrition and student dropout need to be reframed in a manner that provides a predictor of the occurrence and the risk posed by particular educational events. They argue that once this is done, researchers will be more confident to ask more substantive questions without getting concerned about the methodological difficulties that may arise.

 

Evaluation

The paper draws attention to wide-ranging, substantive theoretical issues many researchers may have neglected for fear of methodological difficulties. Such awareness promotes the adoption of critical approaches in the review of literature on student dropout, retention, as well as teacher attrition. It also triggers questions regarding the issues the present may have failed to address because of its limited theoretical scope.

 

References

Adelman, C. (1999). Answers in the tool box: Academic intensity, attendance patterns, and bachelor’s degree attainment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Herzog, S. (2005). Measuring determinants of student return vs. dropout/stopout vs transfer: A first-to-second year analysis of new freshmen. Research in Higher Education, 46(8), 883–928.

Ishitani, T. (2003). A longitudinal approach to assessing attrition behavior among first-generation students: Time-varying effects of pre-college characteristics. Research in Higher Education, 44(4), 433–449.

Ishitani, T., & Snider, K. (2006). Longitudinal effects of college preparation programs on college retention. A Paper Presented at the 44th Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research May 31, 2004 Boston, Massachusetts.

Jones-White, D., Radcliffe, P., Huesman, R. & Kellogg, J. (2010). Redefining Student Success: Applying Different Multinomial Regression Techniques for the Study of Student Graduation across Institutions of Higher Education. Research in Higher Education 51(2), 154-174.

Levin, B. & Clowes, D. (1982). The effect of residence hall living at college on attainment of the baccalaureate degree. Journal of College Student Personnel, 23, 99–104.

Porter, S. (2003). Understanding Retention Outcomes: Using multiple data sources to distinguish between dropouts, stopouts, and transfer-outs. Journal of College Student Retention, 5(1), 53–70.

Radcliffe, P., Huesman, R. & Kellogg, J. (2006). Modeling the incidence and timing of student attrition: A survival analysis approach to retention analysis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Institutional Research in the Upper Midwest (AIRUM).

Radcliffe, P., Huesman, R. & Kellogg, J. (2009). Identifying students at risk: Utilizing survival analysis to study student athlete attrition. IR Applications, 21. Retrieved from www.oir.umn.edu/static/papers/CSRDE_2006/CSRDE_Identifying_Students_at_Risk_paper.pdf  on August 1, 2014.

Téllez, K. (2008). What student teachers learn about multicultural education from their cooperating teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 43–58.490–519.

Tellez, K. (2011). A case study of a career in education that began with “Teach for America”. Teaching Education, 22(1), 15-38.

Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89–125.

Tinto, V. (1998). Colleges as Communities: Taking research on student persistence seriously. Review of Higher Education, 21, 167–177.

Tinto, V. (2006). Research and practice of student retention: What next? Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 8(1), 1-19.

Wengraf, T. (2001). Qualitative research interviewing: Biographic narrative and semi-structured methods. Boston, MA: Sage.

Willett, J. & Singer, J. (1991). From Whether to When: New Methods for Studying Student Dropout and Teacher Attrition. Review of Educational Research, 61(4), 407-450.

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