Healthcare Questions

Healthcare Exam Questions

Question 1

Many people the world over are in need of kidney transplants. Based on the premise that one of my siblings is one such individual, the issue as I understand it is that all such patients are normally put on a list in which kidney transplants are done on a first come first serve basis. I believe that this approach is ineffective as it does not consider the emergency situations manifested by critically ill patients that could die before their turn to get a kidney reaches.

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   There are several steps involved in making an effective decision. All stakeholders have to gather facts, make assumptions, lay out all available options, incorporate logic, make the decision, and modify it if necessary. In this case, the traditional medical perspective is one where the first person to need a kidney ought to be treated first should an opportunity arise. In my opinion, the list should be made according to the level of urgency regardless of the punctuality of a patient. That way, everyone will have an equal chance at survival.

Question 2

   Bioethics refers to the study of the ethical issues associated with advancements in the fields of medicine, psychology, genetics, biotechnology and biology, and how they shape both the personal and cultural values of an individual.

Question 3

   Deontological and consequentialism are two of the theoretical approaches to ethical decision making. Deontology posits that moral and ethical decisions are those that are made in accordance with the existing laws while consequentialism follows the saying that ‘the end justifies the means’ and therefore, any decision or course of action can be taken if it leads to the desired outcome.

Question 4

   Autonomy, beneficence, social justice and non-maleficence are the four main principles of bioethical analysis. Autonomy refers to the ability to respect the choices made by a patient while beneficence is the concept according to which researchers and medical personnel are expected to consider patient welfare as the goal of their work. Social justice, on the other hand, is the principle of fair treatment for all. Lastly, non-maleficence is the principle that guards an individual against doing any intentional harm.

Question 5

   There are several areas of influence during moral problem-solving. The main ones are ethical theories, principles, values and moral action. Ethical theories determine the approach that an individual will take when solving a moral problem while principles refer to the way in which individuals act on rules, codes, laws, and obligations. The values of an individual also influence the action that will be taken to solve a moral problem. Lastly, the moral action to be taken is influenced by all the first three components.

Question 6

   There are four main concepts known to influence knowledge acquisition: development stages, critical windows, nurture, and nature. Knowledge can be acquired during the development stages of an individual, for instance, through the mother-infant bond and reasoning. Human imprinting, sensory deprivation, and templates are critical windows to knowledge acquisition. Nature refers to the process of acquiring knowledge based on how one has been programmed or modeled by biological makeup, while nurture refers to the process of acquiring knowledge through personal experiences.

Question 7

   A perspective is the point of view that is adopted in regard to a specific issue. The perspective of an individual, company or society is important when discussing or interpreting any bioethical issue. This is because it determines the ultimate action that will be taken with regard to addressing the issue at hand. Depending on the perspective, a specific and elaborate course of action can be taken to counter the bioethical issue.

Question 8

   When scientists or medical practitioners witness a case in which the patient in question has undergone a somewhat traumatic experience or anything as serious, they can intervene in different ways, for example, through limited intervention. Limited intervention is one whereby a scientist and practitioner can only present the findings of the situation to the patients, after which the ultimate course of action to be taken is limited to the decisions made by the patients and their families.

Question 9

   Manipulation is a very serious threat to an autonomous society. Psychologically, manipulation is a form of social influence that shapes or changes the perception or behavior of an individual regarding an issue. The technical definition of this term, however, entails the use of an electronic device to change or control data in order to promote a certain agenda. Manipulation is a very dangerous practice as it can mean the difference in objectivity and subjectivity in today’s autonomous society.

Question 10

   Informed consent is the permission that is granted by a patient, with full knowledge of any potential complications, risks, and benefits, for involvement in a medical intervention or biomedical research. To qualify as informed consent, aspects of competence, comprehension, disclosure, and voluntariness must be addressed. Competence entails the ability to do something in an efficient way whereas comprehension is the ability to understand what is being addressed or what one is about to do. Disclosure entails the declaration of all the risks or complications a patient may face while or after participating in the medical intervention or experiment. Lastly, voluntariness is the assurance that the patient is acting out of his/her own free will.

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