Management Exam


Please I want an expert in Critical incident management to do this exam. I will upload pages for each question so the writer must go to the pdf that I upload for each question and get the answer from it and paraphrase it, and he must answer each part of the questions ….((( NOTE: in the question 1 you should answer that “ what is meant by “continuity of government” so give complete answer

The following are the questions:

  1. Briefly define and describe community resilience as it related to critical incident management.  Include in your answer what is meant by “continuity of government.” (20 points)
  2. Describe the four phases of disaster management and include examples of areas and/or topics that would be included in each phase. (15 points)
  3. Describe what is meant by critical infrastructure and give at least 10 examples of what infrastructures this area would include? (15 points)
  4. Define social vulnerabilities and give at least five examples of those vulnerabilities.  (10 points)
  5. Briefly discuss “hazard mitigation” and the different ways a community can impact potential hazards by mitigation activities. (10 points)
  6. What are the “lessoned learned” from the 9/11 Commission Report? (15 points)


Critical Incident Management

Question 1

            Community resilience is the ability of a community and its constituents to bounce back from the negative impacts of disasters. Development is not completely separable from hazards thus community resilience is essential.


Continuity of government is the principle of establishing systematic procedures that enable a government to proceed with its operations in case of catastrophes such as atomic warfare, earthquakes, and terrorist attacks. Nuclear warfare is a form of military and political conflict in which nuclear weapons are used to cause damage to the enemy. This type of war can potentially be more destructive and it can affect a large geographical area. The effects during and even after the warfare could potentially lead to a period of uncertainty or inactivity socially, politically and economically.

The domino effect of such catastrophes would mean more implications for other geographical populations. Catastrophic events arising from natural forces could also create the same effects. Accordingly, the idea of continuity of government was formulated as a policy intervention and support system designed to ensure that basic operations are maintained despite the occurrence of disasters and as a means of handling the catastrophic events themselves. The policy was then extended and adjusted to handle security and safety in the face of the growing frequency of attacks which have become more prevalent due to increased radicalization.

The presence of hazards is a continuous phenomenon that researchers site as unavoidable and unpredictable. The unquantifiable nature of the ecology and its inter-relationship with development has led planners to prefer building a community with a high level of resilience and flexibility. This phenomenon is modeled on ecosystems and their ability to either adapt or take a new form while still maintaining their identities and operational efficiencies. In essence, the ability to re-adjust or completely change is normally used as the best measure of resilience within a system.

Resilient communities have to incorporate these systems into their daily procedures allowing quick evacuation and response in the case of these disasters. Most importantly, an effective resilience system should be self-sustainable in its adjustment to its previous state. Importantly, land use strategies should be included in the planning phases of the establishment of a resilient community. It has to become both a personal government responsibility to promote interdependently-functioning structures for maximum efficiency and ultimate success. 

Question 2

Disaster management is a sequential process that is best carried out in phases. They should represent a continuous cycle that comprises preparedness before the event, response, mitigation, and community resilience. Each of these phases is discussed in the next section.


Mitigation refers to procedures taken prior to a likely or predicted disaster to reduce the risk of occurrence of the event and its negative effects. These approaches in this regard are divided into structural and non-structural. The former normally focus on dimensions of physical implementation such as dam engineering, building walls, and land alterations, while the latter typically addresses issues land and resource planning in addition to management to prevent loss of life and property in disaster-prone areas.

Meanwhile, some overlap in the manifestation of the approaches may sometimes occur. One common form of mitigation is hazard source control which mitigates risks at the source and prevents the growth of the event at early stages. Other desirable practices include community protection projects, land-use practices and building construction practices encompassing mitigation codes. Finally, a recent inclusion in the maintenance of the natural environment which tends to have a significant impact on structural and non-structural mitigation efforts. This feature further preserves the ecosystem and promotes sustainability and the resilience power of the ecosystem.

Disaster Preparedness

This is the process of taking steps to make the community ready for an event and then activating the plan immediately the event occurs or demonstrates signs of occurrence. With the quick and practical assessment of ground-level activities, alternative communication and movement systems are tested, quickly implemented, and rapidly adjusted to suit the situation. This stage is crucial since it requires coordination of all response organizations in a manner that ensures maximum results and safety for both the population and the response team.

Disaster Response

. This is the process of affecting the preparation steps into step-wise procedures of assessment, hazard operations, population protection, and incident management. The process of assessment entails early detection of a disaster at the earliest stages, monitoring of its development and the profiling of risks. This process is then followed by efforts to outline the actions to be taken and the resources required to suit the specific developments of the unfolding disaster. This step is usually followed by efforts to ensure the protection of the population through evacuation and, if necessary, the imposition of or movement restrictions in an attempt to reduce the loss of life and property.

Disaster Recovery

With the occurrence and the coming to an end of the disaster, there may be a substantial extent of damage and destruction despite the response made. Thus, the recovery phase is a collaborative effort between community members, its leaders, and other supporting organizations to re-establish the previous state of order in the affected area. This process is highly dependent on the community and even more on the smallest units of a community such as separate households whose response approaches and ability to recover may vary depending on the extent of the damage.

Moreover, the phase entails a long and continuous process of short-term and long-term recovery. Firstly, the short-term recovery process must be pursued in order to establish continuity and stability that creates an ideal environment for long-term recovery. Secondly, long-term recovery should be viewed as an embodiment of community resilience. It encompasses activities such as repairing and reconstructing existing utilities in addition to construction new ones. Essentially, this phase often signifies the beginning of another mitigation process within a new cycle of disaster management efforts.

Question 3

Critical infrastructure plays a critical role in the community. It is the basic infrastructure that is necessary for the daily operation of the area, and the main examples include road and transport infrastructure, electricity, water, phone, internet connectivity, communication pathways, hospitals, schools, and police stations. Disruption of this basic infrastructure can create a situation of insecurity, deteriorated health and exponential disaster effects. Cutting off transport networks can incapacitate the movement of victims, and the general population of rescue teams in and out of the area. In addition, movement of much and urgently required supplies may be hindered. Moreover, electricity disruption may lead to first- and second-level impacts. It has the potential to affect other infrastructure such as hospitals, communication, and security through the disruption of lighting and other crucial operations. Similarly, disruption of food and water supply is a potential disaster on its own, and it usually emerges as a secondary stand-alone disaster.

A shortage of these commodities leads to a situation of havoc, deteriorating health and insecurity. In most cases, such a problem results in looting for remaining supplies which eventually develops to starvation and simultaneous health implications. Police stations and other emergency operations such as fire stations could also be affected following a disaster leading to further emergence of new situations and the inability to counter the disaster effectively. The consequences of the destruction of critical infrastructure are particularly dangerous due to their inter-dependence and ability to offset a chain reaction that destroys infrastructure thereby hindering the entire crisis management process.

Question 4

Social vulnerability is the socialization characteristics of a community that determines their ability to cope with, adjust to and recover from the effects of a disaster. It takes into account the different cultural and ethnic backgrounds of people in a community. These differentiating factors include gender, race, educational background, age, and poverty levels, and they strongly influence access to information and resources. In addition, they greatly affect response efforts and adjustment capabilities. It is important to understand these patterns and how different factors come into play through community interactions and participation.

On a broader level, these factors lead to differences in capacity, information access, and understanding, power distribution and resources. Gender ratios become obvious in the rescue team composition a well as the level of activity and participation during the whole cycle. Negligence of this factor could result in imbalances attention on both genders. Education background and level attained directly affects critical management through understanding and critical assessment patterns. Differences in education levels could lead to a lack of synchronization efforts which are crucial especially in the active phases of crisis management. Poverty and social class levels also affect procedures of mitigation and management where the allocation of resources has to be effected in consideration of the sensitivity of this issue particularly in communities characterized by extreme inequality. Thus, social vulnerability is a complex manifestation of underlying societal challenges that are heightened and made more pronounced during disasters.

Question 5

            Hazard mitigation refers to efforts undertaken before an expected or predicted event to reduce or eliminate the risks from natural hazards that may potentially affect human life and property. Hazard mitigation activities basically fall into structural and non-structural approaches. These approaches are differentiated based on the parties responsible for executing them and the form of execution involved. Structural mitigation activities include the construction of dams, levees, sea-walls, and river channelization. This process is labor- and skill-intensive, involving various shareholders in the community. In many cases, these constructions are made possible through the involvement of the transport department, engineers, construction companies, public works and safety, natural resources and environment agencies, housing and urban planning. It also taps into immediate community resources such as transport employees, construction workers, budget agencies, developers, electric utilities and professional organizations.

            Non-structural activities revolve around land use planning in an effort to prevent development in hazard-prone regions. It combines the roles of planners, developers, construction companies and the local population. Community resources are also essential to this process, and their mobilization is facilitated by planners, construction employees, and disaster volunteer groups.

            Other community efforts focus on the management of the natural environment in addition to structural and non-structural approaches. This community initiative balances the focus from human and property safety to the sustainability of the environment. In this way, the community contributes to mitigation efforts in a more focused dimension for long-term sustainability and community resilience. This approach also leads to educative aspects targeting the local community, planners and local government agencies particularly on matters related to sustainability, safety, land policies, and development.


            The role of environmental protection agencies is acquiring and relocating damaged structures, purchasing of these new lands and acquiring rights for new developments. It also involves community members in terms of their willingness and openness to these strategies. It is therefore clear that the community, directly and indirectly, affects the occurrence of hazards, how they unfold and the mitigation process used. The community has the ability to potentially promote the manifestation of hazards through the creation of poorly planned developments and poor land planning. Fortunately, community members also have the ability to participate actively in mitigation activities to combat potential catastrophes arising from those hazards. The community has to be involved in all levels of the process by exerting a pronounced impact on the outcome of the mitigation process. It is important to create awareness and provide knowledge on hazards and mitigation with the focus being on both safety and development.

Question 6

The 9/11 attack was a turning point in America’s perspective on and by extension the global view of security, disaster management, response and command hierarchies. One of the most profound lessons arose from the irregular management and communication between agencies on prior intelligence. The problem revealed a complex penetration of the security system by organizations that are a threat to the country’s security. In addition, both communication efficiency and transparency levels were low and response to the incident was slow, leading to serious loss of life and damage to property. On this basis, American security and emergency management agencies learned a painful lesson on the need to streamline communication patterns, especially at senior levels.

Additionally, the inefficient response was a crucial source of lessons during the attack. Poor response in terms of mitigation, actions are taken, and recovery levels led to more pronounced effects, loss of lives, damage to property and the authorities’ failure to apprehend the perpetrators. Lastly, the attack signified the end of an era in which terrorist threats had largely been ignored as a non-issue in America. Consequently, focus shifted towards security, efforts to enhance existing safety mechanisms and the establishment of a global coalition dedicated to the fight against terrorism.

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