Master’s Outline


Question:

Write a very detailed outline that covers a 15-page research paper. It needs to follow the standard outline format using complete sentences.

Use info below and topic should not be changed.

Topic: Factors that determine the state of death, whether the definition of death should be readjusted, whether brain death is defined as death, the difference between brain death and biological death.

-misuse of painkillers represents ¾ of the overall problem of prescription drug abuse
-more than 15 million ppl abuse prescription drugs in US
-prescription drugs are responsible for more overdose deaths(45%) than illegal drugs (39%) combined
-nearly 50 million Americans suffer from chronic pain, costs $100 billion
-history of painkillers:
-16th century: opium created
-19th century: morphine extracted in pure form, drug dependency rose, opium war
-form of morphine isolated, used in Tylenol
-heroin developed to create something less addictive than morphine
-à twice the addictive qualities
-1905, US banned opium
-Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
-Used by 30 million ppl every dayà aspirin
-Acetaminophenà Tylenol
-Antidepressants
-hypothesis: common misconceptions that painkillers are less harmful compared to illegal drugs causes people to proceed with less or no caution in dealing with painkillers, and stimulates the use of painkillers, which results in the increase in cases regarding painkiller abuse.


Answer:

FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE STATE OF DEATH

  • Common misconceptions that painkillers are less harmful compared to illegal drugs causes people to proceed with less or no caution in dealing with painkillers, and stimulates the use of painkillers, which results in the increase in cases regarding painkiller abuse[1] (Murnion 2010).
    1. Nearly 50 million Americans suffer from chronic pain [2](Lugo and Kern 2010, 24).
    2. More than 15 million people are abusers of prescription drugs in the United States.[3]
    3. Prescription drugs lead to more overdose deaths (45%) than all illegal drugs combined (39%).[4]
    4. Misuse of painkillers constitutes three-quarters of the overall epidemic of prescription drug abuse.[5]
      1. Therefore, from the statistics shown above, this study has established that painkillers have indeed been abused and have caused death in many instances.
  • A painkiller is any drug that is used to relief pain or attains analgesia by interfering with the nervous system [6](Harper 2001).
    1. Painkillers are classified into various categories such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, paracetamol, local anesthetics, nerve blocks and epidurals[7] (Mehlisch 2002).
    2. Classification is based on chemical structure of these painkillers.[8] Moreover, they can also be classified based on use, that is, the group of people who need to use them, the method of administration and the mechanism of action.
    3. On the other hand, illegal drugs are non-prescription, and examples include heroin and cocaine.
  • The History of painkillers [9](George 2016).
    1. In the 16th Century, opium, one of the most commonly abused drug, was created. During the 19th Century, morphine was extracted to fight heavy drug dependency on opium.
    2. Banning of drugs such as opium and others that have been declared illegal such as heroine has occurred in the United States due to the growing problem of addiction.[10] Others such as marijuana are in the process of being legalized in several states because of their rampant use both for recreation and for medicinal purposes [11](Murnion 2015).
  • Painkiller abuse is initially not intentional and majority of people end up abusing them because they need to get rid of a chronic, persistent pain[12] (Rossi 2013).
    1. This is made easy because pain killers are easily accessible over-the-counter and are cheap.[13]
    2. Moreover, most people are not aware of the potential damage painkillers can cause to certain body organs due to the common misconception that their chemical constitution is not similar to that of antibiotics.[14]
    3. The effects of abusing painkillers may take time before being observed physically, and it may be long before the patient starts feeling unwell as a result of the abuse.[15]
      1. Painkiller abuse results to short term, medium term and long term effects (George 2016).
    4. However, some people abuse painkillers purely for recreational purpose. An example is marijuana which has been rampantly abused in America [16](Borgelt and Franson 2013).
  • In conclusion, statistics and various reports have demonstrated the existence of the problem of rampant abuse of pain killers.
    1. The most common reasons for the abuse have also been pointed out and explained in the essay.
    2. Stringent measures should be taken to ensure reduced abuse and consequent deaths of people.
      1. Measures constraining ease of and accessibility to pain killers as well as rehabilitation for addicts should be looked into.
    3. Therefore, this study has adequately proved that the hypothesis that painkillers are the most abused drugs in America mainly due to misconceptions regarding their impact on human health.

 

Bibliography

Borgelt, LM; Franson, KL, Nussbaum, AM; Wang, GS. “The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis.” Pharmacotherapy. 33 (2) (2010): 195–209.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prescription Painkiller Overdoses: A Growing Epidemic, Especially Among Women. Washington, DC: CDC, 2013.

Cowan, D. “Pandemonium over painkillers persists”. British Journal of Community Nursing, 12 no. 4 (2007): 166-169.

Dvorsky George. Brief History of painkillers: Why they Work. Retrieved March 29, 2016.

Finlay, I. “The unavailability of opioid medicine and other legal painkillers.” Addiction, 107 no. 5 (2012): 861–862.

Hard, B. “Management of opioid painkiller dependence in primary care: ongoing recovery with buprenorphine/naloxone”. BMJ Case Reports 2 (2014): 11-29.

Harper,D. “Online Etymology Dictionary: Analgesia”. (2001). Retrieved December 3, 2012.

Hochhauser, Daniel. Cancer and its Management. John Wiley & Sons. 2014, p. 119.

Jensen, Bjorn, Chen, Jeffrey, Furnish, Ti, Wallace, Mark. “Medical Marijuana and Chronic Pain: A Review of Basic Science and Clinical Evidence”. Current Pain and Headache Reports. 19 (2015).

Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary (BNF) (65th ed.). London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press, 2013.

Lugo RA, Satterfield KL, Kern SE. “Pharmacokinetics of methadone”. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy. 19 (4) (2005): 13–24.

Manchikanti, L. and Alan D. Kaye. “Current State of Opioid Therapy and Abuse.” Current Pain and Headache Reports, 20 no. 34 (2016): 93-102.

Mehlisch DR. “The efficacy of combination analgesic therapy in relieving dental pain”. Journal of the American Dental Association, 133 (7) (2002): 861–71.

Murnion B. “Combination analgesics in adults”. Australian Prescriber (33) (2010): 113–5. Retrieved 12 August 2010.

Murnion, B. “Medicinal cannabis”. Australian Prescriber. 38 (6): 212–5.

Rossi, S, ed. Australian Medicines Handbook Adelaide: The Australian Medicines Handbook Unit Trust, 2013.

Russell, FM; Shann, F, Curtis, N, Mulholland, K. “Evidence on the use of paracetamol in febrile children”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 81 (5) (2003): 367–72.

Thomas, Donna-Ann; Maslin, Benjamin, Legler, Aron; Springer, Erin, Asgerally, Abbas, Vadivelu, Nalini. “Role of Alternative Therapies for Chronic Pain Syndromes”. Current Pain and Headache Reports. 20 (5) 2016.

Waters, H. “Abuse-resistant painkillers get mixed FDA response.” Nature Medicine, 17 no. 8 (2011): 905-906.

Wilson, M and Nora D. Volkow. “Abuse of prescription drugs and the risk of addiction”. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 83 no 1 (2006): 4–7.

[1] Murnion B. “Combination analgesics in adults”. Australian Prescriber (33): 113–5. Retrieved 12 August 2010.

[2] Lugo RA, Satterfield KL, Kern SE. “Pharmacokinetics of methadone”. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy. 19 (4): 13–2(2005)4.

[3] Wilson, M and Nora D. Volkow. “Abuse of prescription drugs and the risk of addiction”. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 83 no 1 (2006): 4–7.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Cowan, D. “Pandemonium over painkillers persists”. British Journal of Community Nursing, 12 no. 4 (2007): 166-169.

[6] Harper,D. “Online Etymology Dictionary: Analgesia” (2001). Retrieved December 3, 2012.

 

[7] Mehlisch DR. “The efficacy of combination analgesic therapy in relieving dental pain”. The Journal of the American Dental Association. 133 (7) (2002): 861–71.

[8] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prescription Painkiller Overdoses: A Growing Epidemic, Especially Among Women. Washington, DC: CDC, 2013.

[9] George, Dvorsky. Brief History of painkillers: Why they Work. Retrieved March 29, 2016.

[10] Finlay, I. “The unavailability of opioid medicine and other legal painkillers.” Addiction, 107 no. 5 (2012): 861–862.

[11] Murnion, B (December 2015). “Medicinal cannabis”. Australian Prescriber. 38 (6): 212–5.

 

[12] Rossi, S, ed. Australian Medicines Handbook (2013 ed.) Adelaide: The Australian Medicines Handbook Unit Trust.

[13] Waters, H. “Abuse-resistant painkillers get mixed FDA response.” Nature Medicine, 17 no. 8 (2011): 905-906.

[14] Manchikanti, L. and Alan D. Kaye. “Current State of Opioid Therapy and Abuse.” Current Pain and Headache Reports, 20 no. 34 (2016): 93-102.

[15] Hard, B. “Management of opioid painkiller dependence in primary care: ongoing recovery with buprenorphine/naloxone”. BMJ Case Reports 2 (2014): 11-29.

[16] Borgelt, LM; Franson, KL; Nussbaum, AM; Wang, GS. “The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis”. Pharmacotherapy. 33 (2) (2013): 195–209.


 

Get a 20 % discount on an order above $ 10
Use the following coupon code :
tpc20
Our Services:
  • Essay
  • Custom Essays
  • Homework Help
  • Research Papers
  • Argumentative Essay
  • Assignment
  • College Papers
  • Powerpoint Presentation
  • Dissertation
  • Thesis Paper
  • Dissertation
  • Editing Services
  • Review Writing
  • Lab Report
  • Book Report
  • Article Critique
  • Case Study
  • Coursework
  • Term Paper
  • Personal Statement
Order a customized paper today!