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A)Please discuss thee model of consumer decision making process: Consumer behavior Blackwell ,R
Miniard P, Engel J, Harcourt. please see the below model and be critical

1)Need recognition
2)Search for information
3)Pre purchase evaluation of alternatives
6)Post consumption Evaluation

B)Providing a Rationale: A rationale typically consist of a line it describes a context within which to locate the intended project? And suggests why doing a study is worthwhile?
The rationale is the justification for the study presented as a logical argument (from literature)? it describes the genesis of the study and why it is important to carry out? (Literature)?

C) Context: It gives the reader an understanding of circumstances that may have precipitated the problem and the primary reason that an exploration of the problem is is important to embed your discussion of the context in the ongoing literature?
1. Which introduces by providing the background that sets the stage for the problem to be investigated. Once you have identified a sound researchable problem the next step is to describe the purpose of research?

D) Create definition of emotional confidence: You have done below definition 1 year ago! is this your own definition? or you have read in the literature?
Emotional confidence is the ability by an individual to exhibit a particular emotional disposition consistently for an extended duration. (If this is not your own definition please create a definition and work on it! if it is your please work on improve.

F) Advantage and disadvantage of emotional confidence?


Title: Consumer Decision Making Process


Introduction. 2

The Model of Consumer Decision Making Process. 2

Rationale. 3

Context 4

A Definition of Emotional Confidence. 5

Advantages and Disadvantage of Emotional Confidence. 5

Conclusion. 6

References. 7


The process of consumer purchase decision making tends to be long and sometimes even complex, especially for high-involvement products involving a high level of perception. Meanwhile, virtually all consumer purchase decision processes begin with an emotional response. Consumers purchase products not just because they need them but also because they “like” them. In other words, the purchase experience is not a necessary evil but rather a point where, at best, need satisfaction meets gratification. For this reason, it is imperative to discuss a model of consumer decision making process in the context of a wider project on the effects of emotional confidence. This paper focuses on five areas. Firstly, it discusses a model of consumer decision making process. Secondly, it provides a rationale for the study. Thirdly, it outlines the context within which the project gains its relevance. The fourth and fifth sections examine a proposed definition of emotional confidence and advantages and disadvantage of emotional confidence respectively.


The Model of Consumer Decision Making Process

Many models of consumer decision making have been developed. One of them is the consumer decision process model. This model outlines a sequence of decisions that a consumer must make during the purchase process, which include need recognition, search for relevant information, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, consumption, post-consumption evaluation, and divestment (Engel, Blackwell & Miniard, 2001). In explaining this model, (Engel, Blackwell & Miniard (2001) point out that a model is simply a replica of the phenomenon that it seeks to present. It also demonstrates how various variables are interrelated, sometimes using charts that show the sequence of behavioral processes. In the case of this model, a lot of emphasis should be on the first decision –need recognition- which acts as a “trigger” for the entire decision making process.

Each of the decisions that a consumer makes is influenced by a number of factors. For instance, need recognition is normally influenced by the consumer’s environment, memory, as well as individual differences (Engel, Blackwell & Miniard, 2001). There must be a specific situation that drives the consumer into recognizing a need. However, marketing activities may also contribute profoundly to need recognition. On the other hand, a consumer may perceive a need simply because of a positive past experience in a purchase process. In such a case, the consumer may have created a strong, positive attitude towards a brand or product, thereby making the purchase environment ideal for him to target a specific purchase.

The next step, the search for information, is arguably the most complicated for the consumer. This is because it is influenced by internal and external factors. Internal factors are mostly all about the consumer’s needs while external factors may include things such as marketing gimmicks and quality of information provided by reviewers. The biggest difficulties may be encountered in high involvement contexts where the consumer lacks prior purchase experience. This is because such contexts require a lot of information and the level of perceived risk is normally high.

Pre-purchase evaluation may be regarded the most difficult task for a consumer since it involves looking at the pros and cons of a wide range of products before making a final call on the most appropriate choice among them. A consumer has to decide whether to approach the decision from a logical or emotional point of view. Even if a consumer chooses to adopt a logical approach, some element of emotional influence cannot be ruled out. The strategies that one may use to make a decision at this level may vary from one consumer to the other. Some consumers adopt a heuristic process that simplifies complex information while others identify a single feature upon which the benefits and risks associated with the product are evaluated.

Purchase and consumption are also important decisions since they can greatly influence the purchase behavior that a consumer may exhibit in future. Chances of a repeat purchase may not be known until a consumer has reached the level of post-consumption evaluation. At this stage, consumers evaluate their consumption experience vis-à-vis the promise made at the pre-purchase evaluation. At the this level, a consumer can make a decision on several things relating to the purchase experience, such as whether the marketers provided accurate information, whether reviewers were candid about the pros and cons of consuming the product, and whether the consumer did enough research during need recognition and search for information. The answers to these questions often greatly influence future purchase behavior. If a consumer feels that he made the wrong decision despite many hours or days of information search and pre-purchase evaluation, he may exhibit more complex purchase behavior. Moreover, his level of perceived risk relating to purchasing similar products may increase considerably.

In divestment, which is the last part of the model of consumer decision making process, rational thinking is likely to be enhanced because reality normally hits home for the consumer in terms of the negative effects of allowing emotions to influence purchase decisions. Some of these effects may include financial constraints, loss of valuable time that could have been spent in other activities, and hazardous effects of the product on one’s health. On the other hand, a consumer may seek to reduce the agony associated with making purchase decisions by simplifying the criteria through narrowed focus, explicit description of the characteristics of the ideal product, and avoidance of purchase situations characterized by a high level of perceived risk. Similarly, the consumer may think about recovering some of the costs by reselling the product, and if possible, recycling it.


The model of consumer decision making process is situated in the context of a study on how emotional confidence influences consumer decision making. From the discussion on the model, it is evident that emotions play a critical role in the various decisions that consumers must make during the purchase process. The concept of emotional confidence is important in this study since it captures behavioral attributes of consumers in terms of emotions. More importantly, it conveys a powerful message regarding differences among consumers, such that some may be said to exude greater emotional confidence than others. In this case, the problem is on how to determine which consumer is emotionally confident and who is not. On this basis, an assessment of these different kinds of consumers can enable a researcher to determine how emotional confidence influences decision making during the purchase process.

A number of studies support the idea of discussing consumer decision making based on the role of emotions, and a number of findings have been generated. One of these findings is that the incidental effect of emotions can easily influence judgment and choice (Loewenstein & Lerner, 2003). Another finding is that emotional deficits can degrade the quality of an individual’s decision making (Loewenstein & Lerner, 2003). Moreover, the research has shown that incorporating emotions in decision making models increases their explanatory power considerably. Indeed, this point has been demonstrated in the model proposed by (Engel, Blackwell & Miniard (2001), which incorporates emotions as one of the factors influencing consumer decision making.

Carrying out a study that examines the role of emotional confidence in consumer decision making is a worthwhile undertaking. This is because it can help consumers to identify and deal with various emotional deficits that influence them to make the wrong purchase decisions. On the other hand, the findings of this study can be relied on by marketers to identify different emotional deficits with a view to exploit them in their promotional campaigns in order to increase sales. For example, many consumers make the mistake of treating risk as something to do with feelings (Loewenstein et al., 2001). Marketers easily exploit this perception to create promotional messages that minimize risk perception. It is upon emotionally confident consumers to see beyond the emotional promotional messages to evaluate the risks that accompanies the purchase decision.

Furthermore, the debate on the role of emotions in consumer decision making is ongoing, only that the concept of emotional confidence has not been accorded the attention it deserves as a major determinant of the ultimate purchase decision. Much has been said about integral emotions, which are essentially normatively relevant subjective influences on present choices and judgments (Han, Lerner & Keltner, 2007; Pham, 2007; Cavanaugh et al, 2007; Bell, 2011). The same case applies to incidental emotions, which are subjective emotional experiences that are normatively irrelevant to the present choices and judgments (Andrade & Ariely, 2009; Kim, Park & Schwarz, 2010; Maheswaran & Chen, 2006). However, these findings have not been synthesized to create a theoretical model for explaining emotional confidence in the context of the decision making process by consumers. Thus, this study offers an important contribution to the debate by focusing exclusively on emotional confidence its correlates as far as consumer decision making process is concerned.


Three main factors precipitated the identification of emotional confidence as the primary focus of the project. The first factor was the realization that this is an emerging area of study that has historically been neglected by consumer researchers but which now needs their full attention (Loewenstein & Lerner, 2003). The second factor was the observation that different people behave in different ways depending on whether their moods are bad or good at any given time (Han, Lerner & Keltner, 2007). Thirdly, risk is an important factor in consumer decision making process, and many consumers perceive risk based on feelings (Loewenstein et al., 2001).

Based on these factors, it is evident that emotional confidence is a critical issue that warrants an in-depth investigation. Through the research inquiry, the researcher will get an opportunity to test various assumptions as well as examine the role of emotional confidence in different consumer decision making models. Moreover, the researcher will be able to know why people’s emotions keep changing during the purchase decision making process and the effect these changes have on the ultimate purchase decision. As for incidental and integral emotions, further analysis is required with a view to determine the point at which emotional deficits pose a problem for consumers in terms of risk perception.

A Definition of Emotional Confidence

            A suggested definition of emotional confidence is “the ability by an individual to exhibit a particular emotional disposition consistently for an extended duration”. It may be necessary to improve on this definition because it misses certain things about emotions. First, it is important to mention the need to overcome negative emotions (Bell, 2011). It is also important to indicate that an emotional state that is exhibited today should be reinforced by forming the basis for decisions in future for it to qualify as a component of an individual’s level of emotional confidence (Andrade & Ariely, 2009). Moreover, for people who are not emotionally confident, emotions should play a bigger role than reason or logic in making a purchase decision (Kim, Park & Schwarz, 2010). In light of this information, the new suggested is “the ability by an individual to exhibit a particular emotional disposition, to overcome negative emotions consistently and repeatedly for an extended duration, in such a way that rational thinking plays a greater role in decision making than the incidental effect of emotions”.

Advantages and Disadvantage of Emotional Confidence

A major advantage of emotional confidence is that it enables consumers to think rationally, logically, and critically about various choices availed to them by sellers (Bearden, W., Hardesty & Rose, 2001). Thus, people who are emotionally confident are less likely to make impulse decisions when purchasing products. Another advantage is that consumers who are more emotionally confident are likely to get more value for their money. This is primarily because of their greater level of accuracy regarding risk perception. Thus, such consumers tend to be in a better position to preempt situations where a marketer may be acting dishonestly in the promotional message or concealing reviews that may be critical of the product being sold.

On the other hand, there are two major disadvantages to look out for as far as emotional confidence is concerned. First, it is worthwhile that virtually every purchase decision making process begins with an emotional response. Thus, consumers who possess a high level of emotional confidence be unwilling to accept the reality that emotions have a critical role to play in recognizing a need. This denial may create a situation where the consumers to develop a negative attitude towards purchase-related events. Once negative perceptions come into the forefront, the consumers may end up making irrational decisions. Secondly, emotional confidence may easily lead to the problem of narrow framing, whereby a consumer fails to consider all options available to him (Chater, Huck & Inderst, 2010). Narrow framing may occur because of an attempt by the consumer to assert his emotional confidence based on the notion that bombarding one’s senses with numerous choices clouds one’s logical thinking, leading to impulse buying. Such people would rather narrow down aggressively to two or three choices and begin the purchase decision-making process from that point. This approach is disadvantageous because it creates a situation whereby a consumer easily locks out the best alternatives.


Based on this discussion, one may argue that emotions are an integral element of the consumer decision making process. Positive emotions facilitate the process of need recognition while negative emotions lead consumers into making the wrong choices. The onus is on consumers to ensure that emotional deficits do not lead them into making the wrong purchase decisions. In the proposed model of consumer decision making process, variations in the level of complexity for consumers should not be overlooked, particularly in regards to the confounding effect of emotional confidence. In conclusion, emotional confidence is an emerging area of study that has historically been neglected by consumer researchers, hence the need to give it full attention through a research study.


Andrade, E. & Ariely, D. (2009). The enduring impact of transient emotions on decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109(1), 1–8.

Bearden, W., Hardesty, D. & Rose, R. (2001). Consumer Self‐Confidence: Refinements in Conceptualization and Measurement. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(1), 121-134.

Bell, H. (2011). A contemporary framework for emotions in consumer decision-making: Moving beyond traditional models. International Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 2(17), 12-16.

Cavanaugh, L., Bettman, J., Luce, M., Payne, J. (2007). Appraising the Appraisal-Tendency Framework. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(3), 169-173.

Chater, N., Huck, S. & Inderst, R. (2010). Consumer Decision-Making in Retail Investment Services: A Behavioral Economics Perspective. New York, NY: Blackwell Publishing.

Engel, J., Blackwell, R. & Miniard, P. (2001). Consumer Behavior. New York, NY: Harcourt Inc.

Han, S., Lerner, J., & Keltner, D. (2007). Feelings and Consumer Decision Making: The Appraisal-Tendency Framework. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(3), 158–168.

Kim, H., Park, K. & Schwarz, N. (2010). Will This Trip Really Be Exciting? The Role of Incidental Emotions in Product Evaluation. Journal of Consumer Research, 36(6), 983-991.

Loewenstein, G. & Lerner, J. (2003). The role of affect in decision making. London: Longman.

Loewenstein, G., Weber, E., Hsee, C. & Welch, N. (2001). Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 267-286.

Maheswaran, D. & Chen, C. (2006). Nation Equity: Incidental Emotions in Country‐of‐Origin Effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 33(3), 370-376.

Pham, M. (2007). Emotion and rationality: A critical review and interpretation of empirical evidence. Review of General Psychology, 11(2), 155-178.

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