HRM Assignment

Question

Guide questions

  1. What is the role of a human resource department in enhancing employees’ wellbeing?
  2. What role can a human resource department play in enhancing employees’ work – life balance?

Outline

  1. Title Page
  2. An Abstract or an Executive Summary
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Introduction
  5. Body (addressing assessment criteria as laid out in the Course Profile)
  • provide an explanation of employee health and safety.
  • explain some consequences of a bullying and sexual harassment culture.
  • explain the role of the HR department in enhancing employees’ wellbeing
  • explain the role of the HR department in enhancing employees’ work – life balance
  1. Conclusion:

Your report should finish with a succinct conclusion that should bring together what was covered in the report.

  1. References (cite current/latest but relevant references, 2008-2013)

Answer

 

Executive summary

This report will examine an explanation of employee health and safety as described in recent literature. At the outset, the important role of the HR department is highlighted. Emphasis is on the importance of employee health and safety in promoting physical, emotional, and mental wellbeing. Specifically, the paper will outline the example of the bullying and sexual harassment culture that has continued to prevail at Ozzie Construction Company (OCC). The negative consequences of this culture are presented, within crucial insights being drawn from recent HR literature.

The report also explains the role that the HR department plays in enhancing employees’ wellbeing. The report found out that this department should retain its people-centered role of advocating for the wellbeing of employees. The department is in a good position to appreciate the needs of employees and to communicate them to the senior managers of the company. For example, at OCC, the HR department should investigate cases of harassment and bullying and recommend disciplinary actions. However, the department should also play a proactive role of advocating for a change of organizational culture with a view to promote behaviors and attitudes that promote employee wellbeing.

Finally, this report concludes by showing how the HR department can put in place programs aimed at enhancing employees’ work-life balance. The report recommends that the HR department at Ozzie Construction Company (OCC) should focus on long-term benefits and not the cost of introducing a positive employee health and safety culture as well as work-life balance programs. This is because even if the long-term benefits cannot be financially quantified, they are of utmost importance to the company in terms of employee wellbeing, improvement in performance, and retention. These goals can be achieved if the HR department avoids being preoccupied with strategic issues to the extent of losing touch with the day-to-day workplace realities of employees.

 

Contents

Executive summary. 2

Introduction. 3

Understanding the meaning of employee health and safety. 4

Consequences of a bullying and sexual harassment culture. 7

The role of the HR department in enhancing employees’ wellbeing. 10

The role of the HR department in enhancing employees’ work – life balance. 13

Recommendations. 16

Conclusion. 18

References. 18

 

Introduction

It is important for organizations to ensure that all principles of employee health and safety are adhered to. This enables employees to be more productive as well as to maintain work-life balance. Without employee health and safety, it is impossible for the goal of employee wellbeing to be achieved (Lohela, 2009). This is because employee wellbeing encompasses both physical and mental aspects. When employees work in a safe and healthy environment, they are able to derive more satisfaction in their day-to-day workplace tasks.

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A culture of bullying and sexual harassment acts as a major deterrent to employee wellbeing (Lohela, 2009). It also jeopardizes employee health and safety (Lohela, 2009). The human resource (HR) department has a crucial role to play in enhancing employees’ wellbeing. One of these ways is by ensuring that the culture of bulling and sexual harassment is replaced by a culture of friendly workplace relations among employees as well as between employees and management. The aim of this report is to explain the meaning of employee health and safety. It also highlights the main consequences of a bullying and sexual harassment culture. The report also examines the role of the HR department in enhancing employees’ wellbeing. Finally, this report assesses the role that the HR department can play in enhancing work-life balance among employees.

Understanding the meaning of employee health and safety

Employee health and safety entails efforts to identify workplace hazards and reduce exposure to harmful substances, situations, and accidents. Most organizations that are committed to employee health and safety put in place systems and mechanisms for providing training to personnel on ways of using protective equipment, preventing accidents, responding to accidents, and maintaining adequate levels of emergency preparedness (Lohela, 2009).

Organizations function smoothly when all the health, safety, and security concerns of employees have been addressed (Keller, 2009). Health encompasses physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing. By promoting safety standards, employers enhance the physical wellbeing of their employees. Employees are protected from risks of accidents that are normally caused by fire, machinery, or diseases. Moreover, employees feel secure whenever measures are put in place to prevent unauthorized access to the environments in which they perform their routine workplace duties.

In organizational contexts, it is the responsibility of the HR manager to ensure that employee health and safety issues are addressed (Keller, 2009). The HR department is responsible for coordinating safety programs as well as creating awareness among employees regarding the company’s health and safety policy. The department is also responsible for coordinating and conducting formal training on safety and health issues. The HR manager also bears the overall responsibility of ensuring that the working conditions of all employees are safe and secure at all times. To achieve this goal, the HR manager should monitor safety systems, coach employees on issues of safety consciousness, communicate the company’s safety policy to employees, and investigate accidents.

According to Fujishiro & Heaney (2009), employee health and safety may be understood in terms of justice at work. When the issue of occupational stress is addressed amicably, employees may be said to have obtained justice at work. The notion of justice arises from the fact that it is the right of the employee to work in an environment where his health and safety is not compromised. An employee who is constantly being bullied and sexually harassed faces the risk of being subjected to injuries or psychological and emotional suffering. To avoid such injustices, many companies provide policy guidelines on relations among employees, interactions between supervisors and their subordinates, as well as mechanisms for preventing and investigating occupational accidents and safety problems (Fujishiro & Heaney, 2009).

Today, many organizations continue to spend a lot of money on employee health (Miller & Haslam, 2009). They do this in efforts to ensure that the wellbeing of all employees is promoted. The assumption for the occupational health professionals working in these organizations is that an improvement in employee wellbeing correlates with an increase in the level of organizational productivity (Miller & Haslam, 2009). These professionals hope that when issues of health and safety are taken care of, the employee is able to maintain work-life balance.

It is important for the HR department of any organization to take employee health issues seriously. It is common for the need to address employee health issues to be justified using ethical arguments. Safeguarding employee health and safety not only leads to an improvement in organizational performance, it is also the right thing for the HR department to do. According to Miller & Haslam (2009), ethical arguments are believed to have an impact on the response of many business organizations.

In situations where ethical arguments fail to drive organizations into action, legal compliance often does. In fact, a majority of organizations only adhere to employee health and safety requirements simply because it is a legal requirement (Miller & Haslam, 2009). Companies are also driven by the need to maintain a corporate reputation in their efforts to promote the wellbeing of their employees. Ozzie Construction Company (OCC) is known for its bullying and sexual harassment culture. This culture gives the company a bad name. The senior management of OCC may need to consider promoting a culture where employees are not bullied and harassed, if only to build a better corporate image. Such efforts would bring about numerous benefits, including legal compliance, employee satisfaction, and alignment with the objectives of the business.

Some companies are keen to assess the return-on-investment relating to employee health and safety programs (Keller, 2009). Companies incur costs when employees stay away from work because they are ill. They also spend a lot of money on insurance premiums for employees. For this reason, HR departments are tempted to put pressure on employees to increase their output with a view to realize a more return-on-investment for their employers. Moreover, HR departments are faced with the need to maintain a balance between productivity and employee wellbeing (Keller, 2009). When this balance is maintained, employees are given realistic targets. They are also given reasonable autonomy over their work. Moreover, the company endeavors to make them feel that they are making a meaningful contribution in the context of the wider scheme of things. This enables them overcome the awful feeling that they are trapped in the workplace.

One major disadvantage of the return-on-investment approach is that costs may be quantifiable while benefits may not (Keller, 2009). Moreover, some of the benefits of safeguarding employee health and safety may be long-term, for example employee retention. To avoid these challenges, companies should stop focusing too much on the return-on-investment approach. Instead, they should promote employee wellbeing simply because it is the right thing to do. This fits in with the ethical arguments relating to employee health and safety. By doing the right thing, companies ultimately achieve benefits relating to the overall business strategies in the long run.

Consequences of a bullying and sexual harassment culture

            Workplace bullying and sexual harassment brings about numerous negative consequences to the organization. It affects negatively the morale of staff members (Nielsen, 2012). It also leads to the establishment of a culture of an unhealthy workplace, such as the one that was created at OCC. In such a culture, employees lack the motivation to be creative and productive. Employees who are constantly being bullied may think that their contribution to the organization is of not much value (Nielsen, 2012). Sexual harassment tends to take an immense psychological and emotional toll on the victim, who may lack the courage to tell the tormentor that the behavior is wanted. Similarly, employees who are continually being targeted by bullies suffer severe humiliation, thereby lowering their self-esteem.

In a culture of bullying and sexual harassment, victims are more likely to work under immense stress, leading to more errors at work, illness, fatigue, injury, and even disease (Nielsen, 2012). Other problems that are often by this unacceptable organizational culture, including isolation, distraction, breakdown of work relationships, and low morale, all contribute to a reduction in organizational performance and productivity.

In more serious cases, staff turnover may increase (Cortina, 2009). Moreover, employees may take industrial action against the organization as well as individual employees (Cortina, 2009). Such an action tends to create negative publicity for the company in addition to triggering an expensive litigation process. Where the sexual harassment and bullying behavior has become an integral component of organizational culture, severe damage to the reputation of the company may occur (Cortina, 2009). This is precisely what happened at OCC. To rescue this reputation, the company’s management must spend more time investigating complaints and taking appropriate disciplinary action. However, this may be a difficult undertaking if the company has no coherent policy on employee health and safety in general and bullying in particular.

Mathisen (2009) points out that apprentices are at a high risk of being targeted for bullying and sexual harassment. According to Mathisen (2009) bullying impacts negatively on how employees perceive creative behavior as well as how they evaluate external creativity levels. It also increases their burnout levels and their intention to switch to another job. Bullying influences the level of job satisfaction and commitment. On the basis of these findings, Mathisen (2009) emphasizes on the need to challenge the misconception that bullying and aggression is a necessary component of the work environment.

In companies where employees are bullied and sexually harassed, such as OCC, it may important for senior managers to look at the nature of specific aggressive behaviors. This is because aggressive behaviors tend to vary from one employee to the other and from one organizational context to the other. Hershcovis (2010) highlights three different categories of outcomes: behavioral outcomes, attitudinal outcomes, health-related outcomes. Behavioral outcomes include organizational deviance, interpersonal deviance, and work performance. On the other hand, attitudinal outcomes include affective commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intent. In contrast, attitudinal outcomes encompass  general health, physical wellbeing, emotional exhaustion, and depression. To some extent, variations may exist depending on whether the bullying and harassment is being done by co-workers, supervisors, or outsiders (Hershcovis, 2010).

According to Hershcovis (2010), the strongest adverse effects emanate from aggression by supervisors. At Ozzie Construction Company, it may be appropriate for the senior managers to start their anti-bullying campaigns at the supervisory level. This is where they stand the greatest chance of dismantling the existing culture of aggression. By prioritizing on cases of harassment by supervisors, the company will be seeking to eliminate negative behavioral and attitudinal outcomes that may not be immediately evident.

When employees are bullied and harassed, the psychosocial environment in which they work changes negatively (Law & Dollard, 2011). According to Law & Dollard (2011), the psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is one of the leading indicators of harassment and bullying in the workplace. It affects the psychological health and the job resources available to the employee. Moreover, it reduces the level of employee engagement in the organization. Law & Dollard (2011) defines the psychosocial safety climate as the shared perceptions of practices, policies, and procedures for protecting the psychological health of the employee. It arises largely from the company’s management practices. At Ozzie Construction Company, the bullying and sexual harassment culture may be responsible for the establishment of a poor psychosocial safety climate. In such a climate, as one would expect, frequent cases of workplace accidents have been experienced. One of the reasons why this culture continues to thrive is because many employees believe that their jobs were poorly designed.

According to the PSC theory, the demands of a job should be balanced against the resources available in order for the ideal psychosocial safety climate to be created. Ultimately, this is what determines the work conditions and by extension, the psychological health problems that employees experience. Too many psychological problems tend to reduce the level of engagement among employees. OCC’s HR managers have a responsibility of assessing the psychosocial safety climate of the organization to determine if psychological health problems and by extension, health impairment paths, have been established. One of the reasons for this phenomenon is workplace bullying and sexual harassment. At this point, all HR managers should be directed to introduce far-reaching culture-change programs aimed at launching investigations and taking disciplinary action against all perpetrators of bullying and harassment.

The role of the HR department in enhancing employees’ wellbeing

            The HR department has a critical role to play in promoting and enhancing the wellbeing of employees. The problems being experienced at OCC demonstrate that the HR department has failed in its role of ensuring that employee’s wellbeing is safeguarded at all times. In companies where the wellbeing of every employee is taken seriously, no one is subjected to harassment and bullying. Moreover, HR departments normally swing into action to respond to claims by employees that their jobs are poorly designed. On the overall, it is the responsibility of an effective HR department to ensure that no single employee is subjected to any physical, mental, or emotional suffering in the process of doing this work.

Current literature contains a lot of information on the measures that the HR department at OCC can take to enhance employees’ wellbeing. According to Gilbert (2011), the HR department should act in liaison with line managers to improve employees’ affective commitment. Gilbert’s (2011) arguments are based on social exchange theory. In this theory, the need for HR managers to engage in relations-oriented behavior is emphasized. Other than engaging in relations-oriented behavior, the HR department is required to make improvements on service quality as far as activities aimed at promoting the wellbeing of employee is concerned.

In Gilbert’s (2011) view, the HR department should focus a lot on the behavioral and attitudinal reactions of employees. This is because they are crucial indicators of the prevailing level of employee wellbeing. Employees who are constantly being subjected to bullying, harassment, and other workplace hazards are likely to develop a negative attitude towards their work. Moreover, employees who have been harassed by their superiors are likely to engage in the same behavior towards their subordinates once they are promoted. This is how a culture of harassment and bullying eventually pops up. To dismantle this culture, the HR department should seek to liaise with line managers to identify health and safety issues that may be making day-to-day workplace tasks difficult to undertake.

Brown (2009) observes that HR managers of today operate in a world where emphasis has shifted from employee-centered roles to management-centered roles. This is reflected in the switch from personnel management to human resource management. The two roles are related in many ways and it is the responsibility of the HR department to reconcile them. According to Brown (2009), emphasis should be on ensuring their compatibility in the context of an organization that endeavors to promote employee wellbeing. The HR department should philosophically reconcile the activities that are directed towards management with those that are directed towards employee wellbeing. For example, the HR department should identify various employee-centered efforts that are beneficial to employee wellbeing and communicate them to management. Nevertheless, HR managers should be willing to overcome the challenges triggered by incompatibility between the needs of management and those of employees.

The HR department must take care not to push aside its people-oriented role of acting as the advocate of employees (Brown, 2009). This risk has increased with the switch from personnel management to human resource management (Zhang, 2009). In performing the role of being an advocate of employees, the HR department should promote an employer-employee relationship that is based on reciprocal value. This can be achieved by listening to their needs, caring for them, empathizing with them, and addressing their concerns (Zhang, 2009). HR departments that neglect this role create a situation where a sense of wellbeing among employees is lacking. Such failures also trigger a lack of commitment to the organization among employees.

In many cases HR departments are preoccupied with strategic issues to the extent where they lose touch with the day-to-day workplace realities of employees. With such preoccupation, the departments fail to represent the voice of employees at senior management levels. This causes employees to lack trust and confidence in the department. The no longer consider the HR department as a partner in efforts to obtain and sustain a balance employer-employee relationship.

The social exchange theory provides support to the notion that when employees develop perceptions of non-commitment within the HR department, the level of affective commitment is affected negatively. The starting point in this case is for the company to assess the willingness by the HR department to value and take good care of all its employees. This can be determined by looking at evidence of responsiveness, empathy, and assurance. The department is seen to be responsive through its willingness to offer assistance and its dedication to the delivery of prompt service. In terms of empathy, the HR department is expected to take into consideration the wishes, needs, and feelings of the company’s employees. Through empathy, the HR department can get closer to achieving the goal of reciprocity in employer-employee relationship. Through assurance, the HR department can demonstrate that it is knowledgeable as far as the concerns of employees are concerned. This makes the employees to trust and gain confidence in the department as far as the pursuit of its advocacy role is concerned.

The role of the HR department in enhancing employees’ work – life balance

Many researchers have demonstrated that policies on work-life/family balance are positively correlated with the performance of employees in organizational contexts (Wei, 2013). However, such work-life balance policies cannot be implemented effectively without managerial support. A turnaround in organizational culture is needed for these policies to be implemented in the right manner. Senior managers are in a better position to influence this change of culture. Once this change has been actualized, the HR department can take over the policy implementation process with a view to enhance the extent to which employees are able to maintain a healthy work-life balance.

In promoting work-life balance, the HR department should also be supported by supervisors, line managers, and middle-level managers. This may enable it develop new standards of evaluating employee performance. This new standards should reflect the importance of work-life balance in the wider scheme of things as far as day-to-day responsibilities of employees are concerned.

The HR department provides the best source of hope for employees who have to operate in a work environment that is constantly changing. Drastic workplace changes have been occurring since the 1990s. Traditional employment contracts are increasingly being replaced by corporate downsizing. A large number of companies have also resorted to hiring temporary and part-time workers. These unstable environments increase the level of vulnerability for employees. They look up to HR departments to highlight their plight to senior managers. Unfortunately, HR managers have also been shifting their attention from people-centered roles to management-centered roles.

At the same time, more women have entered the workplace, thereby raising more concerns about work-life balance. For some organizations, the best option is to enhance their HR policies in order for them to be a reflection of the needs of their employees as far as work-life balance is concerned. Such organizations tend to be aware that failure to address this issue may force their valued employees to look for employment elsewhere. However, when it comes to the implementation of these HR policies, it is normally a different issue altogether. Inefficiencies in the implementation process leave many employees stressed and disillusioned with the workplace.

For work-life balance programs to be effective, they should cover as much detail about employee wellbeing as possible. In other words the programs should be extensive in terms of the way they address aspects of employees’ lives in the workplace and at home. In incorporating this extensiveness of detail, the HR department should prioritize on areas where conflicts between the demands of the job and those of family arise. HR professionals should especially be keen on change of behaviors such as reduced work effort, absenteeism, and lateness. The professionals may also go a step further and seek information from employees regarding their sudden change of behavior.

The objective of extensive work-life balance programs should be to provide a supportive organizational culture that addresses both the workplace and family-related needs of employees. Through such a supportive culture, employees are likely to feel more comfortable to embrace work-life balance programs without fearing that they will have a negative impact on their careers. For example, a HR department may choose to implement the flextime program, whereby employees with pressing family issues are allowed to operate in flexible working hours. Additionally, the human resource department may create structures and systems for co-worker support. However, the greatest problem is not the choice of program but rather proper implementation.

The HR department at Ozzie Construction Company needs to work towards securing managerial support to avoid antagonism within the company’s leadership ranks. For example, HR people may differ with line managers and senior managers regarding the impact of work-life balance policies on the company’s bottom line. One of the reasons why this may occur is that whereas the cost of such support programs may be financially quantifiable, the benefits may not. The company’s top leadership may reluctant to invest huge sums of money on a program whose impact on the overall profitability of the company is not immediately evident. The greatest challenge for the HR department would be to convince the senior management that the long-term benefits in terms of performance, retention, and satisfaction outweigh the costs incurred during the implementation.

Moreover, the HR department has the duty of reassuring employees that the work-life balance programs will not translate into adverse career consequences. Many employees may be concerned about the effects of their absence from work on career progress. Yet such employees have to be away from the workplace for various family-related reasons. The employees may be driven by the fear that they will be perceived to be less interested in career progress. This line of thinking is greatly influenced by the perception of incompatibility of part-time work with prospects of promotion and a higher status.

The HR department should also take care not to sideline the issue of organizational time demands. Employees may unconsciously entrench the path of long working hours in the hope that it offers the best hope of career progress. This perception compels them to endure long hours in tasks that quickly become burdensome because of the need to maintain a delicate balance between work and family matters. This is a serious dilemma that the HR department should help employees unravel. As long as this dilemma remains unresolved, work-life balance conflicts are bound to occur. For a female employee, the time demands of the professional life may make it impossible for the expectations of being a mother to be fully met.

Recommendations

Based on the issues addressed in this report, the following recommendations are made:

  1. The support of senior management at Ozzie Construction Company (OCC) is desperately needed in efforts to promote a culture where employees are not bullied or sexually harassed. The role of turning around such a negative organizational should not be left to the HR department. Senior managers need to mobilize all the available resources in efforts to build a better corporate image. Such efforts would bring about numerous benefits, including legal compliance, employee satisfaction, and alignment with the objectives of the business.
  1. Before taking any countermeasures against bullying and sexual harassment, the HR department should first at the nature of specific aggressive behaviors in which employees engage. They should determine whether the aggression is being perpetrated by supervisors, co-workers, or outsiders. This is because aggressive behaviors tend to vary from one employee to the other and from one organizational context to the other. The actions taken should be dependent upon the behavioral, attitudinal, and health-related outcomes of these acts of aggression.
  1. OCC’s HR managers should assess the psychosocial safety climate of the organization to determine the extent to which psychological health problems have occurred because of bullying and sexual harassment. The corrective measures undertaken should be based on the findings of this assessment.
  1. The HR department at Ozzie Construction Company (OCC) should focus on long-term benefits and not the cost of implementing employee health and safety programs. To achieve this goal, an ethical approach is necessary. This will enable the company dismantle the culture of bullying and sexual harassment. It will also enable OCC retain its valued employees.
  2. The HR department should avoid being preoccupied with strategic issues to the extent of losing touch with the day-to-day workplace realities of employees. In today’s world were the HR role is shifting from people-centered relations to management-centered relations, employees need the HR department to play an advocacy by seeking support and implementation of employee-centered programs by senior management.
  3. Finally, the HR department at Ozzie Construction Company should introduce flextime and co-worker support programs aimed at enabling employees achieve work-life balance.

Conclusion

To enhance employee health and safety in a company, a coherent policy is necessary, and this is where the HR department comes in. This report has addressed the meaning of employee health and safety. To illustrate this meaning, the example of bullying and sexual harassment was examined. These serious forms of aggression may cause severe physical, emotional, and mental suffering to employees. In companies where the organizational culture permits such behavior to be perpetuated, overall employee wellbeing is likely to be negatively affected.

This report concludes that the HR department has a crucial role to play in enhancing employee wellbeing. However, this may not be possible if the department does not first enlist the support of senior management in bringing about a turnaround in the negative culture that permits supervisors, co-workers, and people from outside the company to engage in bullying and harassment. Similarly, the HR department should seek managerial support in efforts to implement detailed programs aimed at enhancing employees’ work-life balance.

 

References

Brown, M 2009, ‘Irreconcilable differences? Strategic human resource management and employee well-being’, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 270–294.

Cortina, L  2009, ‘Patterns and profiles of response to incivility in the workplace’, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 272-288.

Fujishiro, K & Heaney, C 2009, ‘Justice at Work, Job Stress, and Employee Health’, Health Education & Behavior, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 487-504.

Gilbert, C 2011, ‘The influence of line managers and HR department on employees’ affective commitment’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1618-1637

Hershcovis, M 2010, ‘Towards a multi-foci approach to workplace aggression: A meta-analytic review of outcomes from different perpetrators’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 24–44.

Keller, S 2009, ‘Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health’, AAOHN Journal, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 497-502.

Law, R & Dollard, M  2011, ‘Psychosocial safety climate as a lead indicator of workplace bullying and harassment, job resources, psychological health and employee engagement’, Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1782–1793.

Lohela, M  2009, ‘Does a Change in Psychosocial Work Factors Lead to a Change in Employee Health?’ Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 195-203.

Mathisen, G 2009, ‘The occurrences and correlates of bullying and harassment in the restaurant sector’, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 59–68.

Miller, P & Haslam, C  2009, ‘Why employers spend money on employee health: Interviews with occupational health and safety professionals from British Industry’, Safety Science, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 163–169.

Nielsen, M 2012, ‘Longitudinal relationships between workplace bullying and psychological distress’, Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 38–46.

Wei, C 2013, ‘How Can HRM Help Organizations Build the Supportive “Work-Life/family” Balance Culture?’ International Journal of Business and Social Science, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 104-110.

Zhang, H 2009, ‘The mediating roles of organizational justice on the relationships between HR practices and workplace outcomes: an investigation in China’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 676-693.

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