Dissertation Chapter (Literature Review)

The creative role of a senior manager in a media and communications NGO aimed at reducing poverty and promoting human rights in Africa

Chapter 2: Literature review

Contents

Introduction. 1

Characteristics of a creative manager 1

Managing media and communications NGOs in developing countries: The role of creativity. 7

Addressing the challenge of insufficient funding at BBC WST in Angola. 15

Conclusion. 19

References. 20

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Introduction

In this chapter, the aim is to review the relevant literature on the subject of the creative role of a senior manager at the BBC WST, a media and communications NGO that is committed to the reduction of poverty and the promotion of human rights in Africa. This literature is reviewed in such a way as to contribute to the obtainment of the objectives of the study.

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The core areas highlighted in the objectives of this study include the existence of a culture of double-bottom line at WST, reliance on the NGO on external funding, and challenges in obtaining and administering donations to existing NGOs. Other objectives relate to the creative role of the senior manager for the survival of BBC WST and recommendations on a board governance model that is aligned to creativity. This literature review is based on a framework of three core thematic areas. The first one is the characteristics of a creative manager. The second one is the task of managing media and communications NGOs in developing countries. The third thematic area dwells on what happens whenever NGO funding becomes insufficient.

Characteristics of a creative manager

There is abundant literature on the characteristics of a creative manager. Some of this literature focuses on the need to establish a model for determining who a creative manager is. According to Hender & Higgs (2003), creating and innovation contribute significantly to competitive performance. With this in mind, many efforts have been made by researchers to undertake research on creativity in the context of contemporary organizations.

In this literature, focus is not just on Research and Development departments but also on the creativity of managers. This is because creativity is one of crucial characteristics that greatly enhance employee innovation. It is for this reason that researchers have in recent years been seeking to examine the relationship between organizational psychology and creativity. Through such efforts, it is possible for attributes of creative individuals to be extracted and synthesized (Hender & Higgs, 2003).

One of the key attributes of a creative person identified in early research is divergent thinking. This concept has ushered in a new era of the development of instruments for measuring divergent thinking. However, not everyone agrees with this notion. For instance, creativity is in some cases regarded a multi-faceted attribute. In this line of thinking, the impression created is that it is not possible for it to be explored comprehensively through divergent thinking alone (Higgs, 2006). It is on this basis that the need for multi-faceted models arises.

In various models of a creative person, a major factor is the relationship between creative outputs and the attributes of the creative individual. For example, this relationship has been identified in the interactionist model (Hender & Higgs, 2003). In the study by Hender & Higgs (2003), an attempt is made to explore organizational psychology literature in efforts to establish a relationship between personality and performance with the aim of establishing a new model of the creative manager. In this study, creative performance is considered a function of many environmental and genetic factors, cognitive ability, personality, domain skills, attitudes and beliefs, intrinsic motivation, and creative abilities (Hender & Higgs, 2003).

However, Hender & Higgs (2003) do not attempt to highlight the relative importance of various attributes of the creative manager. This is one of the reasons why Higgs (2006) set out to develop a new model based on five interviews conducted using the critical incident technique. In this study, Higgs (2006) also sought to describe the findings of two studies undertaken with the objective of creating a better understanding of the relative relevance of various attributes to contemporary managers.

The critical incident technique was used in the first study, whereby the researchers identified forty characteristics. In the second study, the individual repertory technique was used to conduct fifteen interviews. This led to the extraction of 175 bipolar constructs, which were then clustered into forty six categories before being analyzed on the basis of the framework established in the first paper (Higgs, 2006).

However, literature also reveals a trend in which many have tended to avoid the issue of developing a model of the creative manager. Instead, they have focused on either the role of the creative manager or management issues for organizational leaders who work in environments of creativity. For instance, Prichard (2002) highlights the issue of creativity in the context of the critical tradition as espoused in the realm of organizational studies. In this realm, the question of power relations in the workplace is critical. This is mainly the case in the context of situations where exploitative and oppressive practices are likely to emerge. In this approach, Prichard (2002) explores the issue of creativity from the perspective of the so-called ‘traditional critical reading’ of the notion of creativity in contemporary organizations.

In Prichard’s (2002) study, the case study of CEO of Apple Company Steve Jobs was provided. On the basis of this analysis, the critical discourse underlying the Foucauldian approach was used to analyze the notion of creativity. According to Prichard (2002), the role of academic experts as knowledge agents should be appreciated because it has a bearing on the process of producing creativity in organizational contexts. The organizational devices and prescriptions inspired by these academic experts are ultimately used in the process of visualizing and normalizing ‘creative’ managers (Prichard, 2002).

Prichard’s study contrasts deeply with that of Higgs (2006), whose findings showed that creative managers are by their very nature open, energetic, experimenting, and have self-confidence. Such managers are intelligent, are able to handle conflict, and are able to generate new ideas, and challenge other people’s ideas (Higgs, 2006). Creative managers are always intrinsically motivated while non-creative managers tend to derive their motivation from extrinsic factors. Some of the business skills associated by creative managers include communications skills, the ability to motivate others, clarity of business focus, and generally the ability to exhibit and maintain the character traits of an efficient manager. Higg’s (2002) observations also create the impression that the characteristics of creative managers are similar to those of effective managers.

This view of creative managers is in deep contrast with earlier literature that viewed the creating person as an introverted individual who is also unsociable. In recent literature, creative managers have been viewed as being not only extraverted but also as persons with an external focus. Instead of being perceived as loners, they have been regarded as persons who deliberately engage other people. They are open and sociable as opposed to being arrogant and eccentric. They share ideas with other people, they listen to them, and maintain a team focus.

The ability by creative managers to develop the ideas generated by other people has also been viewed as an important characteristic in the emergence of creativity in top echelons of management in contemporary non-governmental organizations. To a certain extent, the ability to develop on other people’s ideas is viewed as being more important than even the ability to generate one’s ideas (Jackson, 2007).

It is for this same reason that the concept of ‘creativity’ has become very fashionable in corporate and political circles in recent times (Bilton, 2002). In this idea of creativity, a lot of emphasis is on the ability by creative managers to create an environment in which the creativity that is inherent in others is supported. This essentially means that aspects of both generation and implementation are critical as far as ideas are concerned. This implies that for creative managers, focus should first and foremost be on results. In this case, the main task of creative managers is that of problem-solving. On this basis, Higgs (2006) concludes that focus should be on creative problem-solving and innovation as opposed to creativity per se as far as management in business context is concerned.

This view of creative managers acting as creative innovators and problem-solvers is supported by literature on creativity of senior managers in the context of the so-called creative industries. In these industries, a major challenge for managers is the existence of the notion that creative people and processes are inherently unpredictable, individualistic, and irrational. This notion is often promoted in the realms of cultural policy as well as in management contexts. In fact, the poor management of the cultural sector is normally attributed to the unpredictability and individualism portrayed by creative people and processes. However, not everyone agrees with this negative perception of the creative. For instance, Townsend (2010) points out that while such a perspective may harbor some truth, it is also possible for creative processes to be deliberate, collective, and rational. By promoting the perception of creativity as being inherently unmanageable, critics may be contributing to the establishment of a culture of crude managerialism. Such a culture may hinder the ability by senior managers to engage in the task of managing creative people as well as that of engaging in creative management.

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It is also imperative for the characteristics of creative managers to be understood in terms of their vulnerability. Like in other aspects of performance, creativity also comes with its fair share of stress-related attributes. Literature on stress and creativity reveals the existence of an inverse relationship between these two variables. However, the issue of stress potential of creativity is rarely discussed in literature. To understand this potential, researchers should appreciate the fact that the special characteristics of creative managers expose them to special varieties of stress (Mathew, 2010). According to Mathew (2010), the organizational context normally acts as a moderating factor in the occurrence of these types of job stress.

Other than the organizational context, the other factors that influence the interaction between creativity and stress include character traits of the creative manager and the nature of the creative process. With these factors in mind, it is possible for one to conceptualize the day-to-day experiences of the creative manager in a non-governmental organization operating in the media and communications industry. Some of the special character traits of the creative senior manager that make him susceptible to job stress include role ambiguity, pressures of conformity, exposure to hazards, task difficulties, social boycott, interpersonal conflicts, loneliness, time pressure, and boredom with routines (Lewis, 2006).

Some of the stresses that may triggered by the nature of the NGO’s creative process include feeling of being stuck, agony of abandoning pet theories, self-doubt, uncertainty, communication anxiety, fear of failure, interpersonal problems, difficulties in maintaining presence in efforts to build group morale, and evaluation anxiety (Sell, 2004). On the other hand, the stresses encountered by the creative senior manager may be enhanced or mitigated by the organizational context. For example, in a non-creative role or organization, the stresses that are likely to dominate include self-role distance, frustration, boredom, and role stagnation. On the other hand, in the context of creative organizations, organizational context is likely to have a minimal influence on the occurrence of stresses arising from personality traits, the creative process, or the interaction between them. These issues are of utmost relevance in the context of this dissertation, particularly considering that focus is on the BBC WST, a media and communications NGO. By understanding the stresses that creative managers of various NGOs encounter, it is possible to come up with various coping strategies of ensuring that senior managers of media and communications NGOs continue playing creative roles in enabling these organizations achieve their stated objectives.

Managing media and communications NGOs in developing countries: The role of creativity

A creative organization is one whereby income is generated primarily through the production of appropriate novel ideas to deal with problems as well as exploit opportunities identified. Most media and communications NGOs fall with the category of creative organizations. This is simply because they address social challenges as well as exploit opportunities identified by first and foremost using creative methods of telling the story and bringing the issue on the limelight. The BBC WST therefore falls within the category of a creative organization. In developing countries such as Angola, one of the most valued assets of this NGO is the expansive institutional network complete with reporters, documentary writers, editors, and other professionals in the field of journalism. These persons have the ability to use their professional skills creatively in the process of enabling the NGO achieve its goal of reducing poverty and promoting human rights across the country.

According to Bocker (2004), communicating media can have a tremendous positive influence on societal change. The media is always in a unique position in terms of capacity and ability to transform society because its influence is always multi-dimensional, multi-causal, and long-lasting. One of the areas where the media plays a critical role is treatment of conflicts and prevention of crises. In this undertaking, senior managers have to employ elements of creativity in order to exploit maximally the capacities of the media and communications NGOs that they head.

Creativity comes in handy in projects whose implementation is dependent upon media work. In such projects, many problems have to be encountered and numerous dilemmas recognized. For the media and communications NGOs to maintain their influence, there is always a need for institutional backing. This backing sometimes takes the form of controversial public presences. Creative senior managers are faced with the arduous task of creating room for freedom by creating an environment of variety and pluralism.

When handling NGO projects relating to media work, one of the dilemmas that call for creative resolution by senior managers relates to the relationship between cultural autonomy and social violence. Another dilemma is on the relationship between internal and external environments. In today’s globalized world, media and communications NGOs also face the dilemma of the relationship between technological interventions and social learning. Additionally, the relationship between the NGOs and different levels of government also turn out to be a major area of concern for senior managers of various media projects aimed at promoting human rights and reducing poverty in Africa.

Bocker (2004) highlights the debate on the traditional approach in which social work was being undertaken through media in efforts to improve the quality of lives among disadvantaged groups in Africa. Bocker (2004) argues that this old approach should be used as a starting point in starting new creativity-oriented media projects. This idea should be promoted given the environment of new media in which virtually all media and communications NGOs have been forced to operate today (Bocker, 2004). An element of creativity is required if these non-governmental organizations are to succeed in their efforts to use radio and TV alongside new media forms in efforts to reduce poverty and promote human rights in developing countries.

According to Shalley (2004), there are four formal principles that senior managers of media and communications NGOs should adhere to in their efforts to implement various organizational projects. The first principle is the orientation of the project towards the specific development needs of the target social group (Shalley, 2004). The second principle is intensive cooperation at the local level with all other ongoing projects especially from competing sponsors and countries (Shalley, 2004). Thirdly, every project must always be professionally evaluated by external observers (Shalley, 2004). The evaluation task should be undertaken before, during, and after implementation. The fourth principle addresses the issue of transparency in respect of project financing (Shalley, 2004). The goal of transparency should be pursued primarily in respect of political clients as well as the overall goals of the project. Efforts towards the achievement of harmony between means and goals call for a great deal of creativity among senior managers of the NGOs that are endeavoring to build a relationship of cooperation and partnership.

Lewis (2004) also contributes to the debate on partnership in media and communications NGOs by highlighting its relevance as an integral component of relations between NGOs and other local institutional actors. Lewis (2004) gives the example of the 1997 UK White Paper, which addresses the issue of international development. This paper contains numerous references to the need to build different forms of partnerships: partnerships between NGOs and governments, between rich and poor nations, between Southern and Northern NGOs, and between the business community and development agencies (Lewis, 2004). Today, calls for partnership have become an integral component of the discourse on development and policy implementation. For reason, one of the areas where the creative role of senior managers at the BBC WST may be appreciated is that of partnership. Some of the related concepts used to promote partnerships include coordination, cooperation, accompaniment, and collaboration (Lewis, 2004).

However, partnership arrangements between various agencies are rarely subjected to scrutiny. This is an unfortunate turn of events since it promotes a culture where the all-important element of transparency is lacking. In aid-dependent contexts such as that of most media and communications NGOs, which have a passive character, the element of transparency is critical. Without transparency, it becomes extremely difficult to access the much-needed external resources (Lewis, 2004).

Since there is too much reliance on partnerships, the level of unpredictability is normally too high. This is mainly because of the difficulties faced in sustaining partnerships in which unequal development actors have to come together in efforts to promote human rights as well as reduce poverty. In many ways, this defines the environment in which the BBC WST operates in Angola. In its operations within Angola, the BBC WST has had to continue relying primarily on financial assistance from the UK government. This financial assistance has enabled the NGO in its work of raising awareness of various development issues among opinion formers and mass audiences. Other crucial roles that have become achievable at BBC WST include educational programming, promotion of development and human rights awareness in poorer communities, and the building of capacity within the country’s media sector.

In such an environment of reliance on partnerships, a crucial question that is of utmost relevance in this dissertation is on whether a double-bottom line exists based on aspects of financial sustainability, efficiency, serving the community, and competition exists in BBC WST. According to Ortega (2008), the term ‘double-bottom line’ is used to refer to organizations that pursue the goal of investment in a socially responsible environment. In the context of the BBC WST, the idea of double-bottom line would entail the pursuit of investments that help promote the achievement of social goals while at the same time promoting the goal of social responsibility. To determine whether such a culture exists, the main issues to focus on include financial autonomy, financial sustainability, service to community, and competition. A culture of double-bottom line does not exist at BBC WST because the NGO has not succeeded in achieving the goal of financial sustainability and autonomy.

One of the indicators of the lack of a double-bottom line is the fact that the BBC WST continues to rely on the UK government. This state of affairs also acts as an indicator of the environment of vulnerability in which the NGO operates. According to Lewis (2004), it is possible for an outline to be developed for guidelines aimed at generating creative partnerships. In most cases, the staff members engaged in the project tend to have varying perceptions and expectations. For this reason, it is important for process monitoring to be carried out. This enables the senior managers to determine the value that partnership has on the entire project.

In an example o inter-agency partnerships carried out in Bangladesh, Lewis (2004) found partnership to be an evolving process with both active and passive elements at various levels of project implementation. In the case of Bangladesh, the element of creativity took the form of variations in approaches adopted in the course of project implementation. The specific tasks undertaken in each projects were adjusted to enable them fit in with the specific needs of each target group.

It is important for the respective roles of different individuals and agencies to be agreed upon in advance. Moreover, project actors should renegotiate and reevaluate their roles whenever need arises. This requires a great deal of creativity on the part of the senior manager. However, the senior manager of the NGO must avoid the temptation to stick to a very rigid idea of comparative advantage, for example, one in which NGOs are required to deliver all inputs while the national government carries out all research work. Through such synergies, unintended consequences may arise. Some of these outcomes may not be useful to the NGO. For example, a non-NGO may take advantage of the partnership to engage in ‘agency creation’, in which partnerships are used as platforms for the furtherance of the vested interests of the non-NGO.

The aspect of creativity is also required of senior managers during the process of determining how risks are going to be shared in each partnership. Without such an agreement, it becomes virtually impossible for the goals of creativity, innovation, and efficiency to be achieved. To start with, the goals of the partnership need to be identified. This is particularly important in media and communications NGOs where grey areas may exist as far as the task of apportioning of tasks to various partners is concerned. At this point, such NGOs should be keen to identify social entrepreneurs within their ranks and assign them the most appropriate tasks. Social entrepreneurs are creative individuals within the civil society, business, or public sector whose core area of interest entails putting underutilized resources to use with the aim of satisfying unmet social needs.

The creative senior manager must also be able to handle the tensions that arise because of ambiguities in non-profit management. This entails the ability to instill a sense of predictability in structures that leave little room for certainty and precision in terms of core objectives. In many cases, managers of such organizations are compelled to be creative as well as improvise. They have to maintain a balance between a technocratic culture whose emphasis is outputs and performance to one whose focus is on people. A similar balance must always be maintained with regard to aspects of centralization and the establishment of hierarchy.

According to Hulme (1994), a trend has emerged in NGO governance in Africa whereby different NGO strategies are increasingly being implemented at the same time, for example modernizing ‘income generation’ and ‘empowering’ transformational approaches. One of the justifications of this trend is the existence of short-term practicalities such as shortage of staff members and the need to demonstrate individual advantages. The trend has also been influenced significantly by long-term goals of achieving structural change in efforts to reduce poverty and promote human rights. Hulme (1994) refers to this as the ‘double-headed strategy’. This strategy allows NGOs to succeed in presenting different sides to different clients and supporters in the context of shifting conditions of change and uncertainty. At the same time, it enables the NGOs to keep responding to governments and donors with a friendly face. Moreover, it becomes easier for them to increase their membership. This goal becomes achievable because of the fact that the creative managers succeed in creating space for even the most radical members and people’s organizations.

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However, in the world of media and communications NGOs, a major contradiction arises whenever creative senior managers drive their organizations into becoming all things to all categories of people. This contradiction arises when the development NGOs establish a non-political image for approval by the state, only to project a language of political mobilization at the local level. This easily confuses its membership while at the same time triggering conflicts with suspicious governments or charity laws.

The creative aspect of senior management of media and communications NGOs must also be understood in the context of today’s growth in communications technology. This growth is rapidly transforming the approach that these organizations adopt in their work. Using these technologies, NGOs are able to react quickly to events, thereby facilitating ease of deployment of information for advocacy purposes. Similarly, new communications technologies continue to transform the way NGOs relate with various actors within the external environment. In this way, coordination efforts become potentially more effective. This brings into perspective new dimensions to the practice of internal management. However, the increase in quantity and quality of information available increases the complexity of the challenges faced by senior managers. Nevertheless, such challenges may also enable creative managers to ‘sense’ events within the external environment. For example, an abuse of human rights in Angola may be signaled around the world by a media and communications NGO operating in the country so that other NGOs and partner organizations can take immediate action.

According to Clark & Themudo (2006), the creative genius of a senior manager of a media and communications NGO operating in developing countries in many cases holds the key to success or failure of partnerships. Such managers tend to make critical decisions on which partnerships to enter into and the benefits to be derived. For example, the NGO may belong to a certain partnership through agreement, compulsion, or financial incentive. It is incumbent upon senior management of an NGO to seek relationships with the aim of gaining access to external resources that are strictly conditional on partnership. However, these managers should have the foresight to put into consideration the long-term implications of such partnerships. For example, some NGOs have in the recent past been tricked by ‘reluctant partners’ who only seek to transform them into agents enlisted to undertake the unenviable task of promoting certain partisan agendas (Clark & Themudo, 2006).

Addressing the challenge of insufficient funding at BBC WST in Angola

Funding remains a major problem for many NGOs working to reduce poverty in developing countries. There is abundant literature on the circumstances under which NGOs find themselves wading in the sea of insufficient funding and how they deal with the challenge in the long run. However, not much has been researched on in terms of the relationship between organizational structure and manger creativity. It is important for the existing structure at the BBC WST to be explored in detail with the aim of examining the opportunities that exist for manager creativity. The assumption in this regard is that manager creativity can contribute positively to problem-solving as far as the problem of insufficient funding is concerned.

In terms of existing structure, the BBC WST operates as an independent international charity established by the BBC. The reason for setting up the charity was to facilitate the use of media for the advancement of development. To appreciate the need for this charity, one first needs to understand some few basic realities of life in Angola. Angola is a poor African country full of contradictions in terms of level of development, availability of resources, unemployment rate, and media freedom. In 2009, the country expected to generate oil revenue amounting to US$10 billion (Johannsen, 2009). Of Angola’s 16 million people, 4 million live in Luanda, the country’s capital. Seventy percent of the country’s population lives on less than US$2 a day (Johannsen, 2009). After more than 30 years of armed conflict and civil strife, the rate of illiteracy in Angola stands at 32 percent (Johannsen, 2009). Media freedom has greatly been curtailed given that there is only one independent radio station.

The BBC WST established operations in Angola during the past eight years. All along, the charity has been operating in an environment in which majority of NGOs have lost confidence in the ability by the country to triumph over the problem of poverty and human rights violations. This is evident in the fact that most expatriate employees working under various NGOs such as the UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) tend to openly express their cherished dream of completing their assignments in the country and going back to their home countries.

During the eight years of operations in Angola, BBC WST has been focusing on diverse areas such as training of journalists on coverage of elections, HIV/AIDS awareness, and most recently, rendering support to Radio Ecclesia, the country’s only independent radio station, with professional training and capacity building. Evidently, the BBC WST operates in an environment where its work is desperately needed by the country’s citizens. Access to information becomes even more limited when one moves outside Luanda. The only major provider of news and information is the state radio. Moreover, the one-party system heavily censors the information communicated through the state radio. It is for this reason that the charity has been embarking on the work of training journalists on ways of providing balanced coverage.

The political situation in Angola dictates that the BBC WST must tread carefully to avoid being kicked out of the country. In a country where it is almost unheard of for ordinary people to be heard on air, politicians and the so-called ‘experts’ may easily become uncomfortable with BBC’s efforts to build capacity in the independent Catholic radio station with the aim of accommodating the views of the Angola’s ordinary citizens. In this situation, it goes without saying that the vast majority of the people of Angola have been denied a say in the way their daily lives shape up, a phenomenon that leads to violations of the citizens’ fundamental human rights.

In such an environment, BBC WST no doubt faces numerous shortfalls and problems, hence the need to improve on the current practices of the media and communications NGO. One critical area that needs improvement relates to the way the NGO merges private sector methods and tools with various development practices with the aim of becoming a market-driven social enterprise. Once the BBC WST becomes a dynamic market-driven entity, it would be on course to becoming a double-bottom line organization. This essentially means that the NGO would be in a position to set social impact objectives while at the same time creating provisions for financial objectives. Through creativity, BBC WST’s managers are likely to succeed in creating the right operating environment for the establishment of the double-bottom line.

In many cases, the BBC WST hires project managers to implement projects funded by different NGOs with which the charity has already established partnerships. For example, in January 2012, the charity set out to implement a project on family health funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) in India. In the project, the charity faced a major challenge in the task of hiring a development professional who was not only a project management professional but also a strategic thinker. In this undertaking, aspects of creativity at the senior management level revolved mainly around efforts aimed at multi-tasking, handling complex relationships with government departments, sub-grantees, and partners as well as handling competing priorities.

In Angola, the situation for BBC WST is very different. As a major international NGO working in a country where foreigners are viewed with great suspicion, the charity has been operating in an atmosphere of vulnerability. For this reason, a great deal of the NGO’s daily work entails building trust and improving relations. For the organization’s creative managers, the task is as simple as that of providing training, improving access to news and information, and giving disadvantaged Angolans a voice.

It also takes a lot of creativity for a momentum for change to be created in Angola. This task cannot be achieved by the BBC WST in isolation. For this reason several international NGOs have been joining hands to implement various projects around the country. However, the vulnerability of BBC WST has in recent years been pushed a notch higher by a growing trend in which international NGOs have started phasing out their activities in Angola primarily because of high running costs.

The vulnerability of the BBC WST has at times been reduced by the goodwill demonstrated by the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID), UN agencies, the European Union, and charitable foundations. Otherwise, the core support that the charity receives from the BBC is too small to be relied upon in the financing of major media projects across Angola. To reduce this vulnerability, top executives should be empowered to use creative ways of investing the available funds as well as soliciting for more funds from diverse sponsors and partners.

It is unfortunate that the BBC WST is yet to redefine its governance structure in light of the need to apply business techniques with the aim of generating revenue to cover most of the charity’s program and operational costs. Such a move would strengthen its financial viability while at the same time reducing the NGO’s dependence on external donors. According to Alter (2000) such an NGO should endeavor to redefine itself and start operating as an ‘affirmative business. Since the core aim of the BBC WST is to provide support for Angola’s media sector, one of the most creative ways of transforming the charity into a social enterprise may require the establishment of media houses. In fact, the Catholic Church in the country has already set an example by establishing Radio Ecclesia, the only independently owned radio station in Angola. With a proper business model, such media houses can be transformed into sources of revenue through advertisements while at the same time acting as platforms for educating Angolans about human rights and poverty eradication.

Conclusion

References

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Hender, J. & Higgs, M. (2003). Toward a model of the creative manager. Heinemann, London.

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Jackson, M. (2007). Systems thinking: Creative holism for managers. Columbia University Press, New York.

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Mathew, M. (2010). Job Stress of a Creative Manager. Indian Institute of Management Press, Ahmedabad.

Ortega, R. (2008). The double bottom line debate in microfinance: Is it possible for the industry to keep financial sustainability and social performance in balance? Institute of Social Studies, The Hague.

Prichard, C. (2002). Creative Selves? Critically Reading ‘Creativity’ in Management Discourse. Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 265–276.

Sell, S. (2004). Using Ideas Strategically: The Contest Between Business and NGO Networks in Intellectual Property Rights. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 143–175.

Shalley, C. (2004). What leaders need to know: A review of social and contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity. The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 33 – 53.

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