Dissertation (Literature Review)

| August 3, 2019

Dissertation proposal Title: How New Jersey superintendents with longevity perceive their leadership role as change facilitators in their educational districts

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Ascough, L. (2011). Communication matters for leading superintendents: The School Superintendent as lead communicator-part III current effective communication Practices used by leading superintendents. The National School Public Relations Association: Rockville, MD.

The article is the third in a three-part series highlighting the role that school superintendents play as lead communicators. The article examines the communication role of the superintendent. Emphasis is on the need for the superintendent to create the appropriate communication infrastructure. The scholarly tone used as well as the thoroughness of analysis in this article makes it relevant for the dissertation. The author, Larry Ascough is credible by virtue of having working as a correspondent for the National School Public Relations Association.

Babb, A. M.  (2008). Walk beside them: How superintendents support principal change. Los Angeles, CA: University Of California.

This book is in the form of a dissertation of Michael Andre Babb. This dissertation was approved by the University of California, Los Angeles. Therefore, it is a credible and authentic reference for purposes of the present dissertation. This paper is a qualitative study targeting school leaders through the setting up and implementation of training activities. This study is of utmost relevance in studies about district-level education staff, particularly ways of encouraging superintendents participate in the learning process. I think this dissertation is of great importance in enabling the researcher highlight ways of ensuring that interactions between superintendents bring about sufficient autonomy while at the same time encouraging principals to be innovative in a powerful way.

Barnett, J. H.  (2005). Superintendents Speak Out: A Survey of Superintendents’ Opinions Re­garding Recent School Reforms in Arkansas.  Journal of Educational Research and Policy Studies, 5(1), 48-65.

This article is also related to the present dissertation although it is shallow in terms of focus. This is because it only addresses the role of superintendents with regard to the issue of school uniforms. The author is a lecturer at the University of Arkansas. The audience for this article includes school administrators, educationists, policymakers in the education sector, and researchers. It is also meant for use as an academic reference. The best thing about this paper is that it is data-based, making it an extremely useful source of accurate information for the present work.

Bealer, D.  (2011). Promoting Student Achievement: A case study of change actions employed by an Urban School Superintendent. Canada: ProQuest, UMI Dissertation Publishing.

This article provides a qualitative analysis of strategies of superintendents in urban districts to improve the level of achievement among students. The paper also addresses the issue change in the context of the role of superintendents, thereby making it relevant in the context of the present work. The subject matter is explored in detail, making it a credible source of academic information. Bealer argues that superintendents have a crucial role to play in bringing about increased student achievement. The paper concludes that key reform strategies have proven to be beneficial to student performance. However, the author also recommends that quantitative studies involving performance data should be carried out to measure the effectiveness of various reform actions.

Begley, P. T.  (2004). Understanding valuation processes: Exploring the linkage between motivation and action.  International Studies in Educational Administration, 32(2), 4-17.

This paper is a theoretical study of valuation processes in relation to dilemmas inherent in administrative practice. The main weakness of this paper for purposes of the present dissertation is that it does not address the specific issue of superintendents. Nevertheless, the paper is credible by virtue of having been published in a peer-reviewed journal. The paper suggests the use of ethics as a tool for addressing various dilemmas of administrative practice.

Blasé, J. & Blasé, J. (1998). Instructional leadership: How really good principals promote teaching and learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

This book is based on a study in which more than 800 K-12 teachers were requested to give their views regarding the best ways in which successful principals encourage professionalism and teacher growth. It presents the detailed behaviors, attitudes, strategies, and goals that instructional supervisors embraced and their influence on classroom instruction. The main theme in this book is instructional leadership. However, it does address the role of superintendents. The information presented is targeted at instructional leaders for use in problem-solving, collaborative, and reflective contexts. Therefore, the book may not be very useful for the present study.

Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (2008). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership (4th Ed.).  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

This book presents a four-frame model that can be used in a wide range of contexts, including schools, families, and work environments. The four components of this model include the structural frame, political frame, human resource frame, and symbolic frame. Although the book is credible, it is not a good reference point for research on the issue of superintendents and their leadership roles in educational districts.

Bredeson, P. W. & Kose, B. W.  (2007). Responding to the education reform agenda: A study of school superintendents’ instructional leadership.  Education Policy Analysis Archives, 15(5), 1-10.

This paper examines how the role of school superintendents was affected by education reforms between 1993 and 2003. The paper primarily focuses on the issue of an increase in the level of demands for accountability. The paper concludes that curriculum and instruction are the main areas of interest for superintendents. This is a useful source and it would be extremely helpful for the researcher to evaluate it.

Burke, W.W. (2011).  Organizational change, theory and practice. (3rd ed.) Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.

In this book, Burke provides a theoretical analysis of research on organizational change. Burke provides insights the dynamics of organizational change by combining and integrating theory and research with practical application. This book is in no way relevant to the subject of superintendents of educational districts. Therefore, it can only be used in this study as a source of insights into the best theoretical foundation.

Creswell, J. W.  (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 

In this book Creswell examines various issues relating to research design and methodology. It also provides crucial information on circumstances under which researchers may use mixed methods. It is firmly anchored in theory, making it a relevant source for this paper, particularly in the methodology section. It is also beneficial because of the way the author uses exercises, experiences, and writing samples. Moreover, it is credible given that the author, John Creswell, is an Educational Psychology professor at the University of Nebraska.

Cuban, L. (1976).  The urban school superintendency: A century and a half of change.  Bloomington, IA:  Phi Delta Kappan.

This book adopts a historical approach in the analysis of the evolving nature of the job of the urban school superintendent. According to Cuban (1976), the superintendent’s job continues to become tougher and more demanding with time. The main source of this job difficulty is the complex organizational environment in which the superintendent has to operate. For instance, the superintendent is expected to perform many different tasks while at the same time maintaining cordial relations with the board of education. This source is relevant, credible, and worth evaluating for purposes of writing this dissertation.

Cubberley, E. P. (2010). History of education: Educational practice and progress considered as a phase of the. S.l.: General Books.

This book also provides an overview of the history of education. It may not be very useful for purposes of this study because it is too general in terms of scope. Moreover, it an exact reproduction of research work published in 1923, hence it is an outdated. It also has typographical errors that hurt its credibility. Therefore, it is not a useful source.

 Darling-Hammond, L. (2010).  The flat world and education: How America’s commitment to equity will determine our future. New York, NJ: Teachers College Press.

In this paper, Linda Darling-Hammond provides an analysis of America’s education system while providing views on ways of ensuring greater education excellence for children across the country. The main argument of this book is that America needs certain basic strengths and standards, including the establishment of a reciprocal accountability system. Unfortunately, the author does not anchor her analysis in theory. Moreover, the paper does not relate closely to the leadership role of superintendents. It is therefore not relevant for this dissertation.

Firestone, W. & Riehl, C. (2005).  A new agenda for research in educational leadership.  New York:  Teachers College Press.

In this book, the authors examine the subject of education leadership. Current research and knowledge on leadership is highlighted, and new questions regarding the importance of research in this field are raised. This book also highlights the need for accountability systems and their impact on educational policy and practice. Its credibility is guaranteed given that it was authored through the co-sponsorship of the University Council for Educational Administration and the American Educational Research Association. The book is worth evaluating for the research work.

Fullan, M. G. (2003).  The moral imperative of school leadership.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

The aim of this book is to discuss the moral objective of leadership in schools and its role in ensuring the success of “principalship” . The author concludes that the success of “principalship” can be achieved primarily by changing the educational context in which it is embedded. The principal is viewed as not just a school teacher but also a leader in today’s era of accountability. Fulham (2003) provides a concise, authoritative analysis of school leadership and is therefore useful for this study.

Fullan, M. (1989). Implementing educational change: What we know. Washington, D.C.: Education and Employment Division, Population and Human Resources Dept., World Bank.

This paper identifies the findings that have already been derived in relation to the implementation of educational innovations. All the findings are research-based. The paper only highlights evidence from Europe and North America over the last fifteen years. The paper concludes that many areas of correspondence exist in the implementation of educational projects in North America and Europe. The paper is credible because it was published by the World Bank. Additional studies that corroborate these findings have been presented. A bibliography of comprehensive studies has also been appended. I find this source to be an invaluable asset in the process of completing my dissertation.

Gold, A., Evan, J., Earley, P., Halpin, D., & Collarbone, P. (2003). Principled principals? Values-driven leadership: Evidence from the ten case studies of “outstanding” school leaders.  Educational Management and administration, 31(20, 127-138.

This paper gathers evidence from ten case studies in an investigation of ways in which school principals promote shared values in English schools. The authors conclude that many of these leaders who happen to have emerged as outstanding tend to avoid engaging in “bastard leadership” by routinely mediating the policy of the government through their own moral principles and values. The authors discuss issues from a scholarly perspective. Moreover, the paper is published in a peer-reviewed academic journal. This source is of utmost relevance to this study.

Guba, E. G. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational Resources Information Center Annual Review Paper, 29, 75-91 as cited in Krefting, L., (1990).  Rigor in Qualitative Research: The Assessment of Trustworthiness. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45 (3), 214-222.

In this source, Guba (1981) discuss the abstract concept of “naturalistic inquiries”. This paper provides an excellent framework for undertaking qualitative research. The author is in support of the idea of establishing universally accepted criteria for assessing trustworthiness in naturalistic inquiries. In light of the contributions made towards its publication, particularly by the U.S. Department of Education, and the Educational Resources Information Center, this source seems credible. However, the complex issues it raises relating to rigor in naturalistic inquiries go beyond the scope of this dissertation, making the source irrelevant.

Haglund, D.  (2009). Systemic change and the system leader: A case study of superintendent action to improve student achievement in a large urban school district. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.

The aim of this case study is to examine the actions that school district superintendents in urban areas take to impact positively on student achievement by leveraging systemic change. This paper fits in well with the theme of the dissertation by tracing the entry of one school superintendent into an expansive urban school district. The author concludes that the actions of the superintendent had a huge impact on quality of education and level of policy implementation. This paper is properly grounded in theory and practice making it extremely useful for this research project.

Hallinger, P. (2009).  Leadership for 21st century schools: from instructional leadership to leadership for learning.  Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Education.

In this paper, Hallinger (2010) traces the development of the notion of instructional leadership since the 1980s. It also explores the efforts that have been made to institutionalize it into discourse on educational management and leadership. The author concludes that a reincarnated type of “leadership for learning” has emerged during this institutionalization process. The ideas discussed in this paper will go a long way in facilitating the build-up of thoughts on the evolving role of school district superintendents.

Hanks, J. M. (2010). The influence of the superintendent of schools on student academic performance.  (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from http://repository.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-05-7835/HANKS-DISSERTATION.pdf?sequence=2

In doctoral dissertation, Hanks (2010) sets out to discuss superintendent practices using the structural equation modeling method. The practices include collaborative goal-setting, establishment of non-negotiable goals, and goal-monitoring processes. This study entailed studying some 300 superintendents in Texas by measuring the perception of their practices and responsibilities. This study substantiated that the tendency by superintendents to address specific responsibilities brings about profound positive impact on the level of achievement among students. As an empirical study whose credibility is not in doubt, this paper is of great value to the present dissertation, mainly in helping actualize the objective of examining the role of superintendents as change agents.

Houston, P.D. (2007).  From custodian to conductor.  School Administrator, 64(3), 28-35.

In this research paper, focus is on the changing role of the superintendent. After examining this changing role, Houston concludes that school leaders need to pay special attention to essential relationships provided for in different mandates. This paper is an excellent, authoritative source that will greatly contribute to the successful completion of this dissertation.

Hoy, W. K., Gage III, C. Q., & Tarter, C. J. (2006). School mindfulness and faculty trust: Necessary conditions for each other? Educational Administration Quarterly, 42, 236-255.

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the notions of mindfulness and trust and apply it in the context of schools. In this study, 75 middle schools were surveyed, whereby 2600 teachers submitted responses to survey instruments. In conclusion, the main finding is that school mindfulness and trust are crucial conditions for each other. Moreover, every school administrator is expected to understand and practice the concepts of mindfulness and trust. The empirical approach used in this study makes it authoritative, while its depth of analysis will greatly contribute to the formation of the core argument of the dissertation.

Hoyle, J. R., Bjork, L.G., Collier, B., & Glass, T.  (eds.) (2005). The superintendent as CEO: Standards-based performance.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 

This source addresses the issue of leadership preparation programs, whereby the superintendent is viewed as a CEO for the school district. This paper is ideal not only for the present dissertation but also for superintendents, school administration students, and professors. By viewing the superintendent as a chief executive officer, the authors provide a dimension that is of utmost relevance to the dissertation.

Jazzar, M. & Algozzine, B. (2006). Keys to Successful 21st Century Educational Leadership. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

This book contains crucial lessons for transforming individuals into visionary leaders whose ethical credibility is unquestionable. The main benefit of using this source for the dissertation is that the perspectives presented emerged from years of research and practical experience. It will greatly contribute towards the development of a core argument regarding whether superintendents with longevity are change agents in school districts or not.

Krefting, L., (1990).  Rigor in Qualitative Research: The Assessment of Trustworthiness. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45 (3), 214-222.

This paper highlights issues relating to qualitative research, specifically rigor and trustworthiness. According to Krefting, the achievement of rigor brings about benefits to both the consumers of research and the researchers themselves. This source will be of great use in the methodology chapter.

Kochanek, J. R. (2005). Building trust for better schools: Research-based practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Konchanek (2005) also discusses the issue of trust in schools. The main weakness of this paper is that it does not discuss this issue with reference to school superintendents. Instead, it explores the role of principal leadership. It also fails to highlight the various ways in which superintendents can effect change in schools. Moreover, the sophisticate quantitative analyses presented may not be of much use in the present dissertation.

Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

In this book, Kotter provides an analysis of efforts undertaken by some 100 companies to transform themselves into effective competitors. According to Kotter, one of the biggest mistakes that leaders make is to fail to establish a sense of urgency in their organizations. This book is not of much use to this dissertation not only because of the author’s personal approach but also his failure to look at leadership issues through the educational prism.

Kowalski, T. J. (1995). Keepers of the flame: Contemporary urban superintendents. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

            The aim of this book is to explore the contemporary conditions in which urban superintendents work. The study surveyed seventeen superintendents beginning early 1993 in order to reveal more intricate details regarding the environment in which they work. This book will be highly valuable as a source of factual data on the state of urban superintendency in the U.S.

Kowalski, T. J.  (2005). The school superintendent: Theory, practice, and cases.  US: Sage Publishers.

This paper adopts a rather “generalized” view of the discussion on the school superintendent. Nevertheless, the author succeeds in providing reflective summaries as well as pertinent questions relating to the role of superintendent in school leadership. This paper will be useful for the research project because it provides many insights into the evolution of the position of the school district superintendent.

 

Kvale, S.  (2008). Doing Interviews. London: Sage.

In this well-written book, Steinar Kvale focuses on both practical and theoretical factors relating to the interview process. The credibility of the book is not in question considering Kvale’s qualification as a professor of educational psychology at the University of Aarhus. The book will be useful in the process of writing the dissertation chiefly because it will act as the main source of information on the choice of interview method.

Lashway, L. (2002). The Superintendent in an Age of Accountability.  Eugene, OR: Clearinghouse on Educational Management.

Lashway (2002) addresses an issue that many other researchers have grappled with: that of accountability. He also highlights the need to demystify the role of school superintendents. The author concludes that the role of the superintendent can be strengthened by revising leadership preparation programs in all universities. This paper is useful because it provides information on the changes required for superintendents to become change agents. It is also an invaluable resource for this research project because of its far-reaching, rigorous analysis of the day-to-day operations of school district superintendents.

Leithwood, I. (Ed.) (1995). Effective school district leadership: Transforming politics into education. Albany, N. U.: State University of New York Press.

The aim of this book is to examine the contributions of various studies on effective leadership in school districts. This book will contribute to the dissertation by facilitating a better understanding of the ways in which superintendents can act as educational managers.

Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. A. (2006). School leadership that works: From research to results. Heatherton, Vic: Hawker Brownlow Education.

The aim of this book is to demonstrate to researchers, scholars, and students the various ways in which school leaders can increase student achievement. It also provides insights into the selection of leadership competencies and practices that can impact positively on school effectiveness. These insights will contribute to the development of ideas on the best use of available decision-making resources among superintendents in the present dissertation.

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. J.  (2003). Classroom management that works: Research based strategies for every teacher.  Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

In this paper, focus is on classroom development and the school-wide measures that can be undertaken to promote it. This theme relates to the leadership development of superintendents in a very remote way. Therefore, this resource may not be of much use for the dissertation.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001).  Classroom instruction that works:  Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement, Alexandria, VA:  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

In this study, the authors address aspects of classroom instruction. Unfortunately, this theme is of no direct relevant to the day-to-day leadership roles of superintendents. The information provided is of relevance primarily to educators seeking research on effective strategies of enhancing the level of achievement by students through classroom instruction. Therefore, it would be pointless to evaluate this source during the dissertation-writing process

Murphy, J.,Evertson, C., & Radnofsky, M (1991). Restructuring schools.  New York, NY: Teachers College Press. 

This paper highlights the reform movement of the mid-1980s in American schools. It addresses the process that entailed restructuring the country’s educational enterprise in its entirety. It will be useful for this dissertation because it provides a lot of information that hints at the changes that superintendents in the U.S. can expect to occur in the future.

Nestor-Baker, Nancy S., & Wayne K. Hoy (2001). Tacit knowledge of school superintendents: Its nature, meaning, and content. Educational Administration Quarterly, 37(1), 86-129.

This article summarizes the debate on the tacit of knowledge of superintendents in Ohio. The findings of this paper are of utmost relevance in creating a better understanding of knowledge regarding the leadership role of New Jersey superintendents.

Owen, J. C. (1998).  The roles of the superintendent in creating a community climate for educational improvement. United States: The University of Texas. 

In this book, Owen (1998) contributes to the debate on public school superintendency. Through this debate, it is easy for the present project to benefit from crucial anecdotes relating to the reality of the job of being a superintendent in the U.S and the leadership challenges it comes with.

Peery, A. B. (2004).  Deep Change-Professional Development from Inside Out.  Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Education.

In this study, the theme is professional development in the teaching profession. The assumption is that change must occur on the part of both the teacher and the learner. Since the present research project dwells on superintendents, this paper may not contribute significantly to its development.

Reeves, D. B.  (2002). The daily disciplines of leadership.  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

This paper addresses the issue of discipline among school leaders. It will of great use particularly in the context of popular scholarly themes such as accountability, performance assessment, and academic standards.

Schlecty, P. C. (1991).  Schools for the 21st century: Leadership imperatives for educational reform.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Education Series.

In this book, emphasis is on the need for strategic planning for reform efforts to succeed. According to Schlecty (1991), the extent to which superintendents act as change agents is greatly determined by their ability to engage in strategic planning. In light of this argument, it will be crucial for this book to be consulted frequently throughout the research-writing process.

Shannon, S., & Bylsma, P. (2004). Characteristics of improved school districts:  Themes from Research.  Retrieved from http://www.k12.wa.us/reserach/pubdocs/DistrictImprovementReport.doc

This study aims to describe the characteristics of school districts that may be said to have improved in terms of performance, governance, and leadership structures. This is a valuable source primarily because it focuses on research undertaken during the past 10-15 years on improvement in school districts.

Smith, W.F., Andrews, R.L., (1989). Instructional Leadership: How Principals Make a Difference. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 314826).

This paper argues that principals can enable students achieve their full potential as well as enable them get an equal opportunity for excellence in life. Both the theme and the deeply-academic approach adopted in this paper fit it perfectly well with the aims and objectives of the research project. This source will therefore be worth subjecting to evaluation and critical assessment.

Tyack, D., & Hansot, E. (1992). Managers of virtue: Public school leadership in America, 1820-1980. New York: Basic Books.

In this study, the authors adopt a pessimistic view of the public education system in America. This approach is not only unique but also invaluable in enabling the researcher focus on the right questions in the analysis of the state of superintendency in New Jersey.

Waters, T. J., & Marzano, R. J. (2006). School district leadership that works: The effect of superintendent leadership on student achievement. Denver, CO: Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning.

This paper argues that excellence at the highest levels of leadership can trickle down to the individual student through improvement in the level of achievement. The relevance of this paper is evident through emphasis on various themes, including district-level leadership, creation of goal-oriented districts, and correlation between superintendent tenure and student achievement.

Willower, D. J., & Fraser, H. W. (2002). School superintendents and their work. Administrator’s Notebook, 28(5), 1-4 as cited in Sawyer, D. J. (2010) Superintendent perceptions of district leadership for improved student achievement. Dissertation, East Carolina University.

This article presents findings of a survey in which 50 Pennsylvania superintendents were interviewed. The main finding was that these professionals were bothered by mountains of paperwork from government agencies, lack of closeness to instruction, and job-related pressures. These findings will form a basis for further enquiry into the challenges of superintendency in the U.S.

 Wirt, F. M., & Kirst, M.W. (2003). Schools in conflict: The politics of education. The American Political Science Review, 78(2), 522-523.

This book veers from the core issues relating to superintendency by discussing the politics of education in the U.S. In its present form, the book is more suited to the general audience than to scholars specializing in educational policy and leadership at the school-district level.

Wolf, E. L. (1998). The school superintendent in the reform era: Perceptions of practitioners, principals, and pundits. Peabody Journal of Education, 65(4), 9-30.

This article raises an important debate on the changing role of principals and superintendents since the appointment of the first superintendent. This debate will help steer the present research project towards the all-important theme of change in educational districts in New Jersey.

Klatt, B. (1996).  Superintendents as agents of systemic change: The professional characteristics of superintendents who facilitate systemic change in their school districts. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.

This paper addresses a subject matter similar to that of the present dissertation. Klatt (1996) concludes that the dynamics of this job leaves the superintendent in a position where he or she is unable to clearly define and conceptualize his duties, responsibilities, and obligations. This study is important because it will act as a platform on which to identify research gaps, build  on existing research, and address controversies relating to the role of superintendents as agents of change.

Ennis, E. A.  (1996). An examination of superintendent behaviors related to supporting school-based change.  (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Oklahoma, Norman.

This source is a credible appraisal of how the behavior of superintendents affects the educational reform process in schools. This paper is relevant for use in the present work because of the suggestions it provides relating to the role of superintendents as change agents.

Fielder, R. (2005). ESAs and leadership development: History, research, and one agency’s experience. Perspectives: A Journal of Research and Opinions about Educational Service Agencies, 11,1-12.

By assessing the subject of educational development from the perspective of educational service agencies (ESAs) this paper demonstrates its uniqueness. The source will be of utmost importance in providing a comparison between various states as far as the contribution of superintendents is concerned.

Bjork, L. G., Kowalski, T. J., & Browne-Ferrigno, T.  (2005). Learning Theory and Research: A Framework for Changing Superintendent Preparation and Development.  In Björk, L.  and Kowalski, T.  (Eds.), The Contemporary Superintendent: Preparation, Practice and Development (71-107).  Thousand Oakes, CA:  Corwin Press.

This article provides a melting point for ideas on theory and practice in relation to the position of the contemporary superintendent. This source will be relied upon in identifying the theoretical underpinnings of change efforts targeting superintendents.

Calhoun, K.  (2004). Superintendent Change Leadership Strategies Associated with Successful Technology Integration in Public School Districts.  La Verne, CA: University of La Verne.

This paper should be viewed in light of an emerging trend characterized by a renewed interest in technology leadership research. However, this is an unpublished doctoral dissertation and is therefore not be a credible source.

Chance, P. L., & Bjork, L. G.  (2004). The social dimensions of public relations.  In T. J.  Kowalski (Ed.), Public relations in schools (3rd ed.) (125-148). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill, Prentice Hall.

This paper does not relate directly to the subject matter of this dissertation. Nevertheless, the ideas presented may be useful in examining the extent to which superintendents can contribute to public relations as part of the process of reforming the education sector.

Klatt, B. (1996).  Superintendents as agents of systemic change: The professional characteristics of superintendents who facilitate systemic change in their school districts. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.

This source is credible and relevant in the context of the research project. It not only discusses the job of superintendents but also highlights their role as agents of systemic change in district schools.

Koontz, H., & Weihrich, H. (2007). Essentials of management: An international perspective. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

By adopting an international perspective of the practice of managing, the authors provide invaluable information on how school management practices in the U.S. compare to those of the rest of the world. This information will be used to derive appropriate principles for use by superintendents in bringing about change in their school districts.

Maxfield, M. G., & Babbie, E.  (1995). Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

This book is an ideal reference point for the methodology chapter of this research project. The examples provided in the form of recent published studies will provide a useful guideline on the practice of contemporary social research.

Melton, A.  (2009). Leadership Matters:  A mixed – methods study of South Carolina. Los Angeles: University of South Carolina.

This book provides an in-depth analysis of the various ways in which superintendents adopt various change styles. Moreover, the study addresses the issue of longevity, making it the most relevant source for this study.

Musselwhite, C. & Ingram, R.  (2003). Change style indicator: Facilitator guide. Greensboro, NC: Discovery learning as cited in Melton, A. (2009). Leadership matters: A mixed-methods study of South Carolina. Los Angles: University of South Carolina.

This is one of the articles published in Melton (2009). It is a crucial source of information on the role of superintendents as a source of change.

National School Public Relations Association. (2008). Keep a focus on communication. Rockville, MD: National School Public Relations Association.

The main assumption in this paper is that communication is crucial to the success of change efforts undertaken by superintendents.

Olson, G. H. (2002). What you should know about North Carolina’s ABC Tests, Appalachian State University.

This article provides a major contribution to the debate on the practice of measuring curriculum. This source will be used to provide information as well as new insights on the role of curriculum as an indicator of success of change efforts undertaken by superintendents.

Pope, M. (2004). Restructuring shared governance in higher education: A conceptual framework of faculty trust and participation in governance. Wilmington, DE: Wiley Periodicals.

The notion of shared governance is discussed in detail in this paper. The restructuring approaches suggested in this paper will be compared with the day-to-day operations of superintendents to assess future prospects in their role as change agents.

Schein, E. H.  (1985). Organizational culture and leadership: A dynamic view.  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

This paper is ideal for an in-depth analysis of aspects of both theory and practice. Although it is ideal for academics, it is highly inclined towards examples relating to consultancy and  the work of senior managers. It will be useful in the process of assessing the role of superintendents as senior managers in the education sector.

Schein, E. H.  (1995). Kurt Lewin’s change theory in the field and in the classroom: Notes toward a model of managed learning.  Retrieved from http://www2.tech.purdue.edu/Ols/courses/ols582/SWP-3821-32871445.pdf

This paper provides a suggestion regarding the choice of a theoretical basis in efforts to undertaken planned change. It will be useful for providing suggestions on the ideal theoretical framework for the research project.

Scherz, S. D. (2004). Factors influencing superintendent turnover in selected small school districts in Arizona. San Francisco, U.S: Northern Arizona University.

This dissertation that examines various case studies relating to superintendent turnover in Arizona. High turnover may be an indicator of inability by superintendents to withstand the challenges that come with quest for change. This paper will contribute to efforts to assess the relationships among superintendents’ traits, longevity, and change management efforts.

Vasquez, A.  (2009). The Role of the Superintendent in Raising Student Achievement: A Superintendent Effecting Change Through the Implementation of Selected Strategies. USA: University of Southern California.

The author of this paper effectively uses the case study method to highlight reform strategies implemented by superintendents with the aim of raising achievement in schools. The elaborate, step-by-step, analytical approach employed will be a source of invaluable insights throughout the dissertation-writing process.

 Yeomans, T.  (2009). Building the System and Leadership Capacity of Change: The Experience of a Small School District Superintendent.  Washington, DC: University of Washington.

            This paper provides an overview of leadership issues at the level of school district. However, its scope is narrow, such that the source may not be of much use for the research project.

 

 

 

 

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